Penggunaan Selulosa TandanKosong Kelapa Sawit dan Selulosa Mikrobial dari Nata de Cassavasebagai Pensubstitusi Selulosa Kayu dalam Pembuatan Kertas
Pradikta, Gamma Irca
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Nowadays, forest-extracted wood cellulose still predominantly serves as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture in Indonesia. Consequently, the deforestation rate has alarmingly increased 2% per year. Attempts are necessary to seek alternative cellulose sources that sound potentially available, among which are empty oil-palm fruit bunches (EOPFB) and microbial-cellulose, as synthesizedwith the aid of microorganisms from substrate containing glucose, fructose, sucrose, or other simple carbohydrates, such as juicy waste from tapioca processing (e.g. nata de cassava). In this research, pulp of nata de cassava‟s microbial cellulose was mixed with EOPFB pulp at various proportions (w/w), i.e. 100%+0%, 75%+25%, 50%+50%, 25%+75%, 0%+100%to be processed into pulp and paper. Grammage target made was 60 gr/m2 and 120 gr/m2. Prior to paper-sheet forming, additives were added to such mixture (i.e. 2% alum, 2.5% tapioca starch, and 5% kaolin). Sheet forming also made without additives (as control). The forming of each combination between mixture proportion, grammage target and additive/control-use was replicated 2 times, and the data examined comprised pulp/paper physical and strength properties. The data were analyzed using a completely randomized design with factorial pattern. The yields of microbial-cellulose pulp and of EOPFB pulp were consecutively (wet basis) 60,09% and 61,619%. Physical and strength properties of paper with grammage 60 gr/m2and 120gr/m2consecutively, i.e. water content (4,04-8,95% & 3,83- 9,01%), grammage (59,8-78,92gr/m2& 107,64-145,32 gr/m2), tensile index 0,0056-0,0424 & 0,01002-0.06499 kNm/g), tear index (4,04-8,22 & 4,55-7,72 mN m2/gr),folding endurance (3,5-108,5 & 4-397,5), Cobb60 (56,86-211,32 & 75,03- 398,12 g/m2 for the smooth surface; and 51,07-218,91 & 57,65-404,46 g/m2for the rough/lower surface), brightness (15,64-38,03% & 13,1-26,26%) and printing opacity (62,81-97,55% & 42,99-99,38%). Analysis on biomass conversion revealed that the manufacture of paper from the mixture (w/w) of nata de cassava‟s microbial cellulose (50%) and empty oil palm fruit bunch pulp (50%) through the expansion of each cultivating areas, both totaling 200 ha can substitute for 4.247.156forest-tree stands per year. With this tree-saving figure, it can afford the CO2absorption (uptake) from the air equal to approximately 594.601,85 tons of CO2 per year.