Pemanfaatan Asap Cair Tempurung Kelapa Sebagai Bahan Pengawet Ikan Teri Nasi (Stolephorus Commersonii, Lac.) Segar Untuk Tujuan Transportasi
Al Rasyid, Harun
Bunasor, Tatit K.
Bunasor, Tatit K.
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Liquid smoke is a smokes that disperse in water resulted by dry pyrolisation of raw smoked material (such as wood), and next step is processed by condensation. Liquid smoke derive from natural material which is burning of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin of hardwoods, with the result that compound has disinfectant and antioxidan effect, like acid compound and derivative compound, alcohol, phenol, aldehyde, carbonil, keton, and piridin. The utilization of liquid Smoke includes the food industry as preservative, bioinsectisida, and disinfectant. Transportation is one of important process in post-harvest handling. Handling fish unappropriately during the transportation (a period of more than 7 days) will be affect the quality of fish either physically or chemically. The use of ice as fish preservative has some weaknesses, among others requiring a lot of spaces, if the ice melts it will gain the transport burden, and lessen the fish flesh texture. Due to the weaknesses, it encourages the utilization of liquid smoke as preservative during handling the transportation. The aims of research to find out the long term preservation of fresh rice anchovy fish by using coconut shells liquid smoke for 9 days of storage times, as well as finding out the effect of using liquid smoke as preservative toward the physical and chemical characteristic of fresh rice anchovy fish. At the beginning this research ws carried out by proximate analysis on fresh rice anchovy fish and liquid smoke analysis and also analyzed liquid smoke. After doing both analysis, then is continued by soaking process in liquid smoke. The factors in this observational design consist of, (a ) liquid smoke concentration that utilized by 2 levels namely: a 1 = 20%, a 2 = 30 %, and (b) soaking long times in liquid smoke with 3 levels, namely: b 1 = 15 minutes, b 2 = 30 minutes and b 3 = 45 minutes. Afterward fresh tiny anchovy fish on each observation was continued by measuring phenol content. The best result of each observation continued by storaging at the room temperature for 9 days and observed every 2 days (1st day, 3,5, 7, and 9). During the storage, it was observed on water contents, protein rate and Total Plate Counts (TPC) test, mould and khamir. The result of the research showed that the coconut shells liquid smoke which utilized has good quality with criteria, specific chemical component dominant as phenol broadly area percent 21,55 %, pH 3,29, acid contents 37 %, and phenol content 38 %. Nutrient composition of fresh rice anchovy fish, which is water content 80,39 %, ash rate 3,25 %, fat rate 2,45 %, and protein rate 13,74 %. Based on ANOVA test, it was obtained the best result on liquid smoke concentration 30 % soaking long times 45 minutes which is 0,68 % of phenol content. The preservation process through soaking liquid smoke of fresh rice anchovy fish (Stolephorus commersonii, Lac.), it can keep its freshness until the 9th day. It can be seen from the observation result on protein rate which approaches to assess early protein rate (13,74 %) which is 13,17 %. and microorganism amount that stills at under safe zona according to SNI 02-2725- 1992 (BSN, 1992), which is totaled microbe 7 x 10² colonies / grams and full scale moulds and khamir 2 x 10² colonies / grams.