Pengaruh Ekstrak Lengkuas (Alpinia galanga L.Swartz) Terhadap Peningkatan Daya Simpan Buah Salak Pondoh (Sallacca edulis Reinw.)
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Pondoh salacca fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) is an Indonesia tropical seasonal fruit with non-climateric respiratory pattern and naturally perishable with 5 to 6 days of storage at the room temperature (Mahendra et al., 1993). Decrease the quality of fresh fruits generally occurs due to handling during harvest and post harvest inadequate, leading to various forms of mechanical damage, physiological, biological, and microbiological. The damage of salacca fruit especially caused by infection of yeast, the yeast grow in the skin of the fruit, the color of fruit flesh turn into brown, tender, wet, and even rotten, or, the skin of the fruit becomes very dry and hard, and this could caused problems when peeling it. Alpinia galangal (Alpinia galangal L. Swartz) is one of natural rhizome from Zingiberaceae Family that can be used as natural antimicrobes. In this study, to maintain the quality and to extend shelf life of Pondoh salacca fruit, immersion salacca fruit in Alpinia galangal extract, perforation packaging and low temperature storage were performed. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Alpinia galangal extract to hamper the rotten of Pondoh salacca fruit, analyze physical and chemical conversion during storage and define the best temperature in effort to extend shelf life of Pondoh salacca fruit. This study applies MAP (Modified Atmosphere Packaging). The packages that were used in this study are holed polyethylene (PE) plastic bag sized 25 x 16 cm with 40 μm thickness. Design research that was used is completely randomized design in factorial pattern and four times repetition that were consist of Alpinia galangal concentration factor (consist of 3 levels that were A = 0% (v/v aquadest), B = 5% (v/v aquadest), and C = 10% (v/v aquadest). and storage temperature factor (consist of 3 levels that were T1 = 15oC (RH 85 – 90%), T2 = 22oC (RH 65 – 66%), and T3 = 31oC (RH 67-72%). The study result showed that the best treatment is salacca fruit immersion in 5% (v/v aquades) Alpinia galangal extract during 30 second and storage at temperature 15o C (RH 85-90%) could extend shelf life of Pondoh salacca fruit up to 21 days of storage with 8.33% damage percentage, 0.55% weight loss, 71.56% skin water rate percentage, 80.87% flesh water rate percentage, 17o brix total suspended solid, 0.18% total acid, and 25.83 mg vitamin /100 gram material. The result of organoleptic analysis showed that until the 30th day of storage, hardness, easiness-to-peel, color, flavor, and taste still generally could be accepted, while the black spot at fruit bottom and freshness parameter for salacca fruit that fruit immersion in 0% (v/v aquades) Alpinia galangal extract could not be accepted by panelist on 10 days of storage.