Karakteristik keju lunak hasil fermentasi dengan bakteri asam laktat indigenus
Maheswari, Rarah RA
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Milk with a high fat and protein content can be used in cheese production. Initially, cheese products in Indonesia are imported for supply the specific consumer. However, the cheese has become a kind of common food for Indonesian people. Cheese is usually consumed as a supplement and a flavor enhancer of food. This growing triggers some dairy-based food industry in Indonesia to produce cheese and its diversification. The diversifications are ranging from fresh to processed cheese. One of innovation product is the probiotic cheese products. This study used three different types of lactic acid bacteria: 1) Lactobacillus acidophilus RRM-01 (LA-RRM01), 2) Bifidobacterium longum RRM-01 (BL-RRM01) and 3) Lactococcus lactis DSB 42 (LL-DSB42) to produce a functional cheese product by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria. Analysis was performed on the quality of fresh milk using a pH meter and milko tester, bacterial culture are prepared by refreshment and propagation, soft cheese production by the addition lactic acid bacteria cultures. The analysis of the products includes physical (yield), chemical (pH, moisture content, protein rude, crude fat and ash) and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria). The research used the factorial completely randomized design in three replication. The parameters are pH value, carbohydrate, LAB population. Analysis of crude protein, crude fat, moisture content were performed by randomized block design (RBD). The data were collected from seven treatments of lactic acid bacteria culture (LA-RRM-01/LA, BL-RRM-01/BL, LL-DSB 42/LL, BL-LA, BL-LL, LA-LL and BL-LA-LL). The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by Duncan test for multiplication comparison test. The Sensory analysis was tested by non-parametric analysis. Fresh milk quality of FH cows with a fat content (4.9%), protein (3.8%), lactose (4.0%) and pH (6.7) is accordance with the SNI 314.1:2011 standard. The cheese was produced contain the yield ranging from 17.9% -22.5%, pH values from 5.10 to 5.79, and classified as soft cheese. The treatment did not effect in moisture content, crude protein and ash, but there were significant differences (P <0.05) in the carbohydrate and crude fat either in single culture or culture of the three bacteria. The use of single culture bacteria or in a mixture did not inhibit the other cultures. The population of lactic acid bacteria in the products is approximately 9 log10 cfu g-1. The hardness product cultured by mixed two bacterial cultures were significantly different (P <0.05) with that of three bacterial cultures. Fifty panelists gave neutral and like slightly assessment for the color, flavor, aroma and general preferences of soft cheese (value 3.6 to 5.3), dislike slightly for the appearance of texture (value 2.5 to 3.6). Panelists assessment of the hedonic quality were white-yellow (value 5.0 to 6.1), bitter-sour taste typical cheese-(value 4.4 to 5.0), the typical cheese-sour aroma (value 5.3 -5.6), texture (value 5.2 to 6.4) and consistency (value 5.3 to 7.1). Because of high water content in all the soft cheese products (> 55%) and looks watery consistency, the texture of the products is less preferred by the panelists. Panelists felt bitter and sour after taste. It was concluded that the milk used for cheese production meets SNI standards 314.1:2011. The addition of lactic acid bacteria culture decrease pH during 14 days of storage. Cheese produced in this study was classified to the soft cheese because a high yield and moisture content of over 55%. The addition of LA in a single bacterium produces a higher carbohydrate than the addition of LA in a mixture with a low fat content. The combination of the three starter culture, either singly or mixture did not cause inhibition in other cultures, so that the total population can be reached above 9.0 log10 cfu g-1. The addition of lactic acid bacteria culture produced aroma and sour taste, but cannot cover the bitter after taste with neutral and slightly like of flavor, aroma and general preferences.
- MT - Animal Science