Grilling Process Optimization for Reducing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Grilled Fish and Chicken.
Optimasi Proses Pembakaran untuk Mengurangi Kandungan Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon dalam Ikan Bakar dan Ayam Panggang
Pratama, Rangga Bayuharda
Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have become a concern of many researchers because of its carcinogenic and mutagenic properties at low concentrations (ppm or ppb). PAH molecules are formed during incomplete combustion of woods, petroleum, coal, and organic compounds in foods, such as fish, chicken, and beef meat, with a high content of protein and fat. PAH molecules may be found in Indonesian traditional grilled foods at the low concentration levels. In this study, optimization of grilling process to obtain a safe Indonesian grilled food was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with applying 3 factors, seasoning concentration (0-15.0%), heat distance (2.0-8.0 cm), and process time (28-40 minutes). PAH content in the food was analyzed by a validated solid phase extraction (SPE)-HPLC UV method which has a recovery range of 101.2-104.2%, a repeatability range of 20.8-23.7%, a detection limit (LOD) range of 6.6-7.4 ng/g sample, and a quantification limit (LOQ) range of 22.0-24.7 ng/g sample. PAH compounds investigated in this study were benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), both have the highest toxicity values. BAP and DBA concentrations found in grilled fish and chicken during experiment were in the range of not detected to 149.2 ng/g sample. Both grilled foods had total PAHs (the sum of BAP and DBA) up to 225.9 ng/g sample. The result for optimum formula of fish grilling processes obtained from RSM was heat distance 7.4 cm, process time 30 minutes, and seasoning concentration 5.2%. While the result for optimum formula of chicken grilling processes obtained from RSM was heat distance 6.8 cm, process time 29 minutes and seasoning concentration 6.1%. Verification results showed that no PAH (BAP, DBA, total PAH) was detected (LODBAP 7.4 ng/g LODDBA 6.6 ng/g) on both grilled fish and chicken, which were processed under the optimum formula.
- MT - Agriculture Technology