Rumen Microbial Population in the In vitro Fermentation of Different Ratios of Forage and Concentrate in the Presence of Whole Lerak (Sapindus rarak) Fruit Extract
Astuti, Dewi Apri
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This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of lerak extract on the dynamic of rumen microbes in the in vitro fermentation of diet with different ratios of forage and concentrate. In vitro fermentation was conducted according to the method of Tilley and Terry (1963). The design of experiment was a factorial block design with 2 factors. The first factor was the ratio of forage and concentrate (90:10, 80:20, and 70:30 w/w) and the second factor was the level of lerak extract (0, 0.6, and 0.8 mg/ml). Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, proportional VFA and NH3 concentration were measured at 4 h incubation. Protozoal numbers in the buffered rumen fluid after 4 and 24 h of incubation were counted under a microscope. Bacterial DNAs of buffered rumen fluid were isolated from incubated samples after 24 h of incubation using a QiaAmp kit. Total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Prevotella ruminicola were quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lerak extract markedly reduced protozoal numbers in buffered rumen fluid of all diets after 24 h of incubation. Total bacteria did not change with lerak extract addition. While no difference in F. succinogenes was found, there was a slight increase in R. albus number and a significant enhancement in P. ruminicola number by increasing the level of lerak extract in all diets. Propionate concentration significantly increased in the presence of lerak extract at level 0.8 mg/ml. It was concluded that the addition of lerak extract could modify rumen fermentation and had positive effects on rumen microbes. (Key Words : Sapindus rarak, Rumen Microbial, Fermentation, Forage to Concentrate Ratio).