Potensi dan Pola Pemanfaatan Sumber Daya Perikanan secara Berkelanjutan di Perairan Bengkulu (Studi Kasus: Ikan Bleberan (Thryssa sp.), Tenggiri (Scomberomorus sp.) dan Kape Kape (Psenes sp.))
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The potential of fishery resources in the waters of Bengkulu has been used by local people as a source of livelihood and has been used to support the of economy. But the management of coastal and marine resources that have been made have not successfully contributed to the prosperity for coastal and ocean communities in Bengkulu. Therefore, it is necessary to do an analysis of the sustainability of fishery resources in order to formulate a policy of sustainable utilization of fishery resources. The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of utilization of fishery resources, determine the potential of fishery resources, determine the status of fishing communities, determine stock status of fishery resources and formulate strategies of resource use sustainable fishing in the waters of Bengkulu. This research was conducted at the beginning of October to the end of November 2014. The location of the research was in the province of Bengkulu. The measurement of the fish’s lenght was done in two (2) locations namely: Fish Landing Ports, Baai Island and Fish Landing Sites. This study used primary and secondary data related to the continual attribute dimensions, namely: Dimension of ecology (8 attributes), economy (8 attributes), social (6 attributes), technology (8 attributes) and institutional (5 attributes). The primary data were obtained from direct observation and from interviews with 200 respondents (4 chairmen from marine and fisheries department, 4 chairmen from Fish Landing Ports/ Fish Landing Site, 4 chairmen of co-operative, a chairman of HNSI and 177 persons representing fishermen throughout the province of Bengkulu). The purposive sampling method was used in this research. The lenght measurement of Kape Kape Fish (1.322fish), Bleberan Fish (699 fish) and Tengiri Fish (492 fish) was also performed. All of these fish is dominant fish caught by fishermen. Kape kape and tengiri were the target fish which had a high economic value and Bleberan fish was not the target fish, moreover, these fish had a low economic value. The continual analysis of fishery resources in the waters of Bengkulu was done by using the Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) technique through RAPFISH (Rapid assessment Technique for Fisheries) approach. In determining the priority of fishery resources management policy strategies, the reseacher used kobe plot analysis (Zhang et al 2009) in which the priority was done based on the value of the indicator and risk. After that, the determination of Management Plan Periode was carried out. The indicators and the value of the indicators used in kobe plot analysis were the same as indicators along with their value at RAPFISH. Fishing area for fishermen in the waters of Bengkulu stretches along the coastline to the sea, with a distance of fishing base Manna (pasar bawah), pasar Bengkulu, pasar bantal, pasar Ipuh and pulau Baai reached by consuming ranged from 0.5 hours up to 9 hours. Fishing gear which make a major contribution to the total production of fisheries in the waters of Bengkulu, namely: beach seines, lift nets other, drift gill nets, other fishing, fixed gill nets and nets three layers. The size of the fish caught by fishermen in the waters of Bengkulu during the period of 10 years back showed declining condition. Of measuring the length of the fish as much as 492 fish mackerel, kape kape 1217 and 699 fish Bleberan, it was found that the study sites mackerel minimum length of 150 mm and a maximum length of 400 mm. A minimum length of 80 mm Bleberan fish and maximum length of 240 mm, while the minimum length of fish kape kape of 55 mm and a maximum length of 330 mm. Peak fishing season in the waters of Bengkulu occurred in April, May, June, September, October, November and December to the highest peak occurred in December (IM = 11.391). Not the fishing season in the waters of Bengkulu occurred in January, February, March, July and August with the lowest fishing season in February (IM = 6.084). Growth patterns for kape kape, mackerel and Bleberan is allometric negative. Bengkulu waters have the potential of sustainable (Cmsy) Bleberan fish amounted to 1736.55 ton/year. The optimum amount (fmsy) of 9148 trips /year. Cmsy alleged mackerel value obtained 1842.07 ton/year and amounted to 3980.63 fmsy mackerel trips/year. MSY kape kape at 1.571.35 ton/year and sustainable fishing effort 4182.74 trips/year. Then the number of catches in 2013 shows the conditions that have been over fishing. The value of take home pay per family fishermen for 1 month is Rp.2,766,885.14 with dependents 4 people in one family. While the level of Minimum Wage (UMR) 2014 in the province of Bengkulu Rp.1.350.000,00, means to live comfortably in Bengkulu per month per person is Rp.1.350.000,00. So it can be said that the status of fishermen in the waters Bengkulu was not worth living standard in Bengkulu. Status sustainability of fisheries resources in the waters of Bengkulu included in the category of less sustainable with an index value of 47.109 Attributes that are a priority to be fixed in order to improve the sustainability status of fisheries resources management in the waters of Bengkulu is the selling price of fish, the use of local knowledge related to fisheries management, attribute-level conflict between fishermen and attribute the role of microfinance institutions / business groups Management strategy to be done to maintain and improve the sustainability of fishery resources is a restoration strategy, social development strategy and maintain sustainability strategy.
- MT - Fisheries