Karakterisasi Dan Pemanfaatan Plasma Nutfah Melalui Pendekatan Pemuliaan Dan Molekuler Untuk Peningkatan Hasil Buah Kopyor Dan Kualitas Benih Kopyor.
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Kopyor coconut is one of the commodities that prospectively to increase the income of farmers and local governments. However, its development still faces some problems ie : low production, quality plant material limitations, which is not optimal cultivation techniques and crop management patterns that are less precise. This study aims to: (1) Conduct an inventory existence and record quantity of accession and kopyor coconut varieties from various locations in Indonesia, (2) Evaluate the characteristics of flowering and fruit development the Dwarf kopyor coconut varieties, (3) Identification negative influence of the xenia on kopyor fruits harvested of Tall kopyor and Dwarf kopyor varieties, (4) Develop and evaluate methods of increasing yields kopyor fruit at the farm level through controlled pollination, (5) Determining the genetic mechanisms controlling the kopyor trait of the accession coconut kopyor originating from various locations in Indonesia, (6) Evaluating the genetic diversity of kopyor coconut accessions originating from various locations in Indonesia based on molecular markers, (7) To evaluate patterns of co-segregation between the locus of a number of molecular markers which have been developed for coconut genome and analyzing the linkage of kopyor trait with molecular markers evaluated. The survey results showed that coconut kopyor plants spread in population form at some coconut centers in the area of Java, namely Sumenep and Jember in East Java, Pati, Central Java, Purwakarta, West Java, Tangerang, Banten and Kalianda, South Lampung. In addition it was reported that there is limited kopyor palm plant in Banyuwangi and Ponorogo in East Java, Purbalingga and Purwokerto, Central Java, and in Bogor, West Java. In general, the production of kopyor fruit in all accession kopyor observed at the farm level is relatively low, at under 25% for Tall kopyor accessions and under 40% for coconut Dwarf kopyor accessions. Character of fruit components vary between accessions, with a high value of diversity in the fruit weight and endosperm weight. Endosperm quantity of Dwarf kopyor accessions can be categorized by a score of 1-6 based on the volume of the fruit, while in Tall kopyor has a score of 1-9. The number of female flowers varies between three Dwarf kopyor varieties. The number of female flowers Dwarf kopyor in Kima Atas Experimental Garden, Indonesian Palm Reseacrch institute (IPRI) Manado more than the Dwarf kopyor in the Pati regency, Central Java. The female flower period of three Dwarf kopyor varieties was in male flowers period, allowing the occurrence of self-pollination in the same palm. Dwarf kopyor varieties categorized as direct self-pollinated crops or direct autogamy. viii In general, the development of the fruit in the Dwarf kopyor varieties no different from normal coconut. Dwarf kopyor endosperm kopyor of three varieties began to be distinguished with normal fruit endosperm at the age of 23 weeks after pollination (WAP), with the crumb structure and unstable. Process of endosperm thickening in kopyor coconut start at the age of 23 WAP and reaches a maximum at the age of 41 WAP. Endosperm start regardless of the shell at the age of 32-35 WAP. Endosperm optimal quantity at the age of 41 WAP highest in Kopyor Brown Dwarf (GCK) is 275g and the lowest in Kopyor Green Dwarf (GHK) is 190g. Fruit weight and weight of fiber loss in kopyor fruits occurs at age 35 WAP, which differ significantly from the normal fruit due process of fruit ripening faster. Characteristics of kopyor fruit with husks that previously maturity than normal fruit be an indication for kopyor fruit selection by farmers to harvesting kopyor fruit through tapping method start at age 35 WAP. Kopyor fruit skin discoloration began to occur at the age of 38 WAP. Observation at the mixture population of kopyor coconut heterozygous Kk and normal coconut tree KK conducted in Kalianda, South Lampung, while for Dwarf kopyor heterozygous Kk population with normal cococnut KK in Tayu District, Pati, Central Java. The results showed that xenia occurs due to the presence of the normal tree on kopyor plantations. The presence of more normal trees (KK) among provenances of Kopyor Tall coconut (Kk) resulted in lower harvested kopyor fruits than the expected one. Moreover, removal of normal coconut trees (KK) from Kopyor Dwarf coconut provenances (Kk) increased yield of kopyor fruits. Those indicated that xenia occurs in both Kopyor Tall and Dwarf coconut types. Xenia negatively affects yield of kopyor fruits and quality of seeds and seedlings are produced by farmers. Technology development to increase kopyor fruit production and produce of true-to-type kopyor seed was conducted by a controlled pollination in Dwarf coconut kopyor heterozygous use kopyor coconut pollen homozygous that grown through embryo culture technique. Research conducted on two controlled pollination method is : Metode 1 by applying pollen pure on the stigma of the female flower coconut kopyor and method 2 by spraying pollen added with talcum on the female flowers using a plastic bottle as a spray. The results showed that coconut controlled pollination of kopyor heterozygous Kk use kopyor coconut pollen homozygous (kk) can increase yields of kopyor fruit up to 50%. Method of pollination controlled by spraying pollen were added talc to produce the amount of fruit harvest is not significantly different than the method of stocking of pure pollen, but more efficient in the use of pollen. True to type kopyor seed heterozygous (Kk) can be obtained through controlled pollination between coconut kopyor heterozygous (Kk) with coconut kopyor pollen homozygous (kk) while increasing yields of kopyor fruit. The existence of kopyor coconut that spread in various regions makes the question of a possible link between genetic varieties and accessions of coconut kopyor. Through molecular analysis with SSR markers, five Tall kopyor accession and five Dwarf kopyor varieties and accessions studied genetic diversity. Furthermore, to study the genes controlling of kopyor trait loci on kopyor accession and varieties from five production centers, conducted a controlled pollination between the kopyor Green Dwarf with Tall kopyor heterosigot Kk origin Kalianda, South Lampung, Pati, Central Java, Jember and Sumenep, East ix Java. In general, each individual accessions and varieties tested showed genetic differences from one another by forming two large groups based on the kopyor Tall type and kopyor Dwarf type. However, there are some individuals who are clustered with other accessions or varieties, that allegedly caused had occurred crossbreeding between provenances of different varieties and accession. Besides allegedly caused by the spread of kopyor plants to other areas which have occurred in the previous period. Through a controlled cross between kopyor varieties and accession can produce fruit kopyor with different percentages between cross combinations. This suggests that kopyor that kopyor mutans existed in different coconut genetic background but controlled by similar locus. It can be used as a basis for the breeding program to get new varieties of kopyor coconut by combining kopyor trait from various genetic backgrounds of different coconut. Co-segregation of SSR and SNP markers were tested on a population of 121 F2 progeny coconut kopyor produce 14 loci which follows Mendelian segregation patterns, while seven other loci diverge. A total of four loci were adrift and spread on two linkage groups of kopyor coconut tested. Two SSR loci and two SNP markers located on linkage group with kopyor trait. SNP markers `with distance of 12.2 cM and SNP marker CnSUS # 3 with a distance of 14.4 cM. Addition number of markers and the number of samples tested plants needs to be done to obtain a high density on chromosome and markers closer with kopyor trait on coconut. The markers can be used as candidate markers for early selection of kopyor coconut seedlings.
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