Degradasi Ekosistem Mangrove di Pulau Kaledupa Taman Nasional Wakatobi
Lilik Budi Prasetyo
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Mangrove ecosystem is one type of natural resource conservation target in Wakatobi National Park. Mangrove provides various types of products and environmental protection services such as protection against abrasion, sea water intrusion control, reducing the strong winds, reducing high and flow velocity waveform, recreation and cleaning water from pollutants. Because of he mangrove ecosystem have important functions, degradation in these ecosystem must be properly managed in order functions can be used optimally. One method that is commonly used to study the degradation of mangrove ecosystems is Geographic Information System. Aims of this study were to analyze the level of deforestation and degradation of mangrove, the mangrove species composition and diversity, the correlation between body size mangrove crab (Scylla serrata) with the degradation level of mangrove and to formulate the causes as well as efforts to control the degradation of mangrove ecosystems in Kaledupa Island, Wakatobi National Park. The research was conducted in July 2014 at Kaledupa Island, National Park Wakatobi, Southeast Sulawesi Province. Field data collection is done by taking coordinate points and satellite imagery, vegetation analysis, measurements of mangrove crab morphometric and interview. The results of study showed since declared a national park in 1996, there has been a mangrove deforestation by 214.04 ha untill 2014. The largest mangrove deforestation occurred in Lewuto Village, while smallest deforestation in Tanomeha Village. SIG method showed that was damaged mangrove area in Kaledupa increased from 39.12 ha in 1996 to 41.33 ha in 2014. As for the undamaged mangrove area decline of 938.91 ha in 1996 to 722.66 ha in 2014. Based on the teristris method, mangrove ecosystem in Kaledupa are in a damaged condition. Mangrove communities in Kaledupa composed by eight species. Mangrove species with the highest IVI in four sampling villages varied, namely Rhizophora apiculata Bl. (Tanomeha), Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. (Balasuna), Ceriops tagal (Perr.) B. C. Rob. (Lewuto) and Sonneratia alba Smith (Horuo- Tampara). Mangrove damage level had a negative correlation with morphometric of mud crab (Scylla serrata). Causal factors of degradation include economic factors, education and skills, and weak of supervision of the authorities. Strategies to control the mangrove ecosystems degradation in Kaledupa Island were to utilize mangrove ecosystem status as a conservation area to preserve the mangrove so the potential to be used as an attractive eco-tourism area and should empower communities to provide mangrove seedlings through the establishment of nurseries.