Dinamika Tata Kelola Kawasan Konservasi Taman Nasional Bali Barat
Kinseng, Rilus A.
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This research aims to examine three issues: (1) The historical background and the early establishment of TNBB as conservation area; (2) Institutional management of TNBB's marine protected areas and stakeholder's access control into its natural resources; (3) The role and position of fishers related to resource access conflicts. The research attempts to understand the history of conservation area as well as its resource access in the context of conservation governance so that this research uses a constructivist paradigm. In the constructivist paradigm, 'social reality' is understood and constructed through the interaction between the researcher and the informants, reference group and peer group. As a qualitative study, the research strategy used is the case study. The technique of collecting data is conducted through in-depth interviews, participatory observation and group discussions. The two villages, Sumberklampok and Pejarakan Gerokgak Buleleng, are the focus of this research. The two villages are an enclave village and a buffer village in the TNBB zone. The results of the research show that TNBB conservation originally is derived from the ordinance or Gazette 1941 No. 167 as Wildlife Reserve, prior to be proposed as TNBB conservation in 1982. TNBB zone is established through the merger of West-Bali Conservation area, Menjangan Island Wildlife Reserve and its surrounding areas (the sea), and the West Bali Forest Preserve area of 77.727 ha (71.507 ha of land/forest and 6,220 ha of sea) in 1984. Yet the vast area was narrowed to 19.002,89 ha (3,415 ha of sea and 15587.89 ha of land/forest) when TNBB was definitively determined in 1995. Institutional performance of TNBB marine conservation is fragile through it is better for fishers than the previous periods, especially with the availability of traditional zones in the zoning of 2010. The stakeholders such as state, company, Custom Management Board (Badan Pengelola Adat), and Fishers Group of Banyumandi are actors who have resource access in the TNBB area. The state has ownership status as the owner while the company and fishers as authorized users in resource management. The Custom Management Board and the Group Fishers of Banyumandi gain access and economic benefits of tourism development through structural and relational access mechanisms such as cooperation and social relations. They get access to resources after the fall of the New Order regime. In this way, the cooperation between the public and private (corporate) is achieved, and such cooperation is necessary to the future. Since TNBB establishment, access conflicts began to occur and accumulate in certain events such as burning of huts nyotok nener. In addition, the access conflicts occur between the fishers and companies because the capture fishing area became tourism object and boat mooring locations were eliminated by hotel/resort building. .
- MT - Human Ecology