Induksi Pembungaan dan Perbaikan Mutu Buah Srikaya Jumbo (Annona squamosa L.)
Palupi, Endah Retno
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Sugar apple (Annona squamosa-Annonaceae) is one of favorite local fruits. The main constraint in increasing fruit production is low flower production and dichogamy in which male and female reproductive organ did not mature at the same time. The objectives of this research were to increase flower production by pruning and to improve fruit quality by pollination. The research was conducted in Pakem, Sleman, North Yogyakarta in February until July 2013. The research consisted of two experiments, both were arranged in randomized complete block design with one factor. The factor for the first experiment was pruning i.e. total pruning, partial pruning, and unprunned as control. The second experiment was started with observation on flowering phenology from appearance of flower buds to anthesis, and continued on the receptive period of stigma. Following the observation pollination in which three types of pollination was employed, i.e. controlled pollination, natural pollination, and modified natural pollination. The result of the first experiment showed that flowering increased by total pruning up 83.3% and by partial pruning up to 41.8% compared to unprunned trees. The fruit yield from totally prunned trees was 5%, partially prunned was 3.9%, and unprunned was 2.2% of the flower bud appearance. Observation on flowering phenology showed that development of flower bud appearence until anthesis took 25-34 days. The receptivity of the stigma occurred twice during 05.00 am - 14.00 pm and 17.00 pm - 02.00 am. Controlled pollination resulted in 90 % fruit set as compared to 70 % fruit set in natural and modified natural pollination. Controlled pollination produced more symetrical fruit, ranged 136.8-287.8 g, natural pollination ranged 150.0-367.8 g. Modified natural pollination produced the smallest fruit ranged 82.0-235.2 g.