Relationship between Growth, Cognitive Development, and Motor Development among Preschool Children in Bogor District.
Solihin, Rindu Dwi Malateki
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Children growth is reflected by height for age index. According to Riskesdas (2010), stunting among under five children in Indonesia reached 35.7%. Specifically in West Java province, the prevalence of stunting in under five children reached 35.4% in 2007 and decreased to 33.7% in 2010. The number was still below the national stunting prevalence, but it was a high public health problem according to WHO reference because it was above 30%. Stunting in under five children causes variety of developmental disorders including cognitive (Walker et al. 2005) and motor (Paiva et al. 2012) disorders. Studies in Indonesia, which leads to growth and development aspects are still limited and the results are varied. The main objective of this study was to analyze relationship between growth, cognitive development, and motor development in preschool children. Specifically, it was aimed to : 1)analyze the characteristics of families and preschool children ; 2)analyze the knowledge and practice of nutrition, health and child care; 3)analyze the consumption pattern of preschool children ; 4)analyze growth (height for age) and development (cognitive and motor) of preschool children; 5)analyze the relationship between consumption patterns of children, child characteristics, family characteristics, development (cognitive and motor) and children‟s nutritional status (height for age); 6)analyze the relationship between family characteristics, mother‟s knowledge (nutrition, health , and child care), mother‟s practices (nutrition, health and child care), and children‟s nutrient adequacy level; 7)analyze the factors that influence growth (height for age) and development (cognitive and motor) of preschool children. This survey was conducted to 73 children aged 3-5 years in Cibanteng village, Bogor District, West Java. Sampling was carried out with inclusion criteria: 1)children age 3-5 years, 2); had complete parents and willing to join the survey, 3) data of weight and height at birth were available; 4) do not have congenital abnormalities. Exclusion criteria were: children were sick or under any medical treatments. Data collected included primary and secondary data. Primary data included family characteristics, knowledge and practice (nutrition, health and child care) child characteristics, child development (cognitive and motor), child growth (height for age), and consumption patterns of children. Secondary data included description of the study location and children characteristics. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 for Windows. Descriptive analysis described the distribution of the variable based on percent and average. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between: 1) family characteristics, child characteristics, consumption patterns of children, development (cognitive and motor) and height for age; 2) family characteristics and mother's knowledge (nutrition, health, and child care); 3) family characteristics and mother‟s knowledge practices (nutrition, health, and child care), 4) practice of mother (nutrition and health) and children‟s nutrient adequacy vii level. Factors that affect growth (TB/U) and development (cognitive and motor) of children were analized by linear multiple regression. This study showed that more than half of the children had normal characteristics. Families size mostly were small and they were poor. More than half children had family members that were active smokers. The average of father‟s education level was high school and worked as labor, while the mother was elementary or high school and not working. Mother‟s height and BMI were relatively normal. Level of mother‟s nutrition knowledge and health were classified as moderate, while the knowledge level of child care was high. Level of health practices was high while the level of nutrition practices and child care were moderate. Most children ate three times a day and did not always finish their food. Most children were not exclusively breastfed for six months (89.0%) and did not drink milk regularly. Snacking was a common children‟s eating disorder. Almost all mothers prepared and fed their children by themselves. More than half of the children had normal height for age, but level of cognitive and fine motor development were low, while gross motor development level were moderate. There was significant positive relationship between: 1) mother‟s height, children‟s nutrient adequacy level (energy, protein, iron, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus), birth length of children, and children height for age; 2) children height for age, early education, age of the children, and level of motor (fine and gross) development; 3) children height for age, early education, age of the children, psychosocial stimulation, and level of cognitive development; 4) mother's education level and mother‟s nutrition knowledge; 5) mother's education level, family income, and mother‟s health practices. There was significant negative relationship between family size, nutrition knowledge level and child care practices level of mother. There was no significant relationship between mother‟s nutrition and health practices and children‟s nutrient adequacy level. Factors that significantly influenced children height for age were mother‟s height and children‟s nutrient adequacy level (energy and protein). Factors that significantly influenced the level of fine motor development were children height for age and gross motor development level. Factors that significantly influenced the level of gross motor development were children‟s age, cognitive and fine motor development level. Factors that significantly influenced the level of cognitive development were early education and gross motor development level.
- MT - Human Ecology