Family environment, schools and children's creativity in conventional and progressive primary school in Depok
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Rapid changes in the flow of information and technology is a challenge that must be faced by a nation to survive and compete with other nations. To face these challenges qualified human resources are required, which must be able to adapt, and be able to solve the problems of life with a variety of creative ways so that each individual can survive in this globalization era. Naturally, each individual have a creative attitude and behavior which were influenced by both the family environment and school environment. Education is one of the factors that can affect the development of one's creativity in family environment and school environment. Family environment is first and foremost a place for the education of children with regard to parenting, interaction, support, independence, task orientation, success orientation, religion and culture, and commitment to common rules. While the school is a place where children learn to socialize, discover and gain knowledge and experience. Schools need to create a fun learning environment that can build a child 's curiosity to keep learning and to directly find meaningful knowledge. This study aimed to analyze the differences between family environment, school environment and creativity, as well as to analyze the influence of family environment and school environment to the creativity of children in progressive and conventional primary school. This study uses cross-sectional design study conducted in four schools in Depok, one prominent state schools and three private schools. The schools were purposively selected (purposive sampling), the sample schools were then separated into two types of schools, namely conventional schools and progressive school. The population of samples in this study were students in the fourth and fifth grade and then from each school as many as 30 children were randomly selected, bringing a total sample of 120 children. Primary data were collected in the form of children characteristics, family characteristics and school characteristics data. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire that had been tested, with Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.67 to 0.85 for the instruments used. Secondary data obtained from the schools and the Education Department of Depok consisting of student and general school data. The data were presented in tables and analyzed descriptively. For the difference testing analysis, independent t test was used, Spearman correlation test was used for testing correlation. To see the factors that affect the creativity ANCOVA was used, while to determine the sample’s level of creativity figural and verbal creativity tests were directly conducted by professional psychologist using reliable and valid standardized testing tools. The results showed that the samples are in the range of 9 to 11 years of age, there are more girls than boys and nearly half of the samples are 10 years old. For the sample’s fathers, the average age was 42.49 years and for the sample’s mothers the average age was 39.31 years. For the educational background of parents in the progressive school, almost half are graduate/postgraduate level. Total family income is higher for the progressive school than the conventional school. While school facilities such as libraries, bathrooms, sports fields, basic medical facilities are present both at conventional and progressive schools. Teachers in the progressive schools on average were younger i.e 28.42 years than the teachers in the conventional schools i.e 38.42 years. Most of teachers in conventional schools are undergraduates in educational discipline, while most of teachers in progressive schools are undergraduates with non-educational backgrounds. There was no significant difference between family environment of the conventional schools and the progressive schools. Family environment of the conventional as well as progressive schools give the same space and quality for the development of children’s creativity by maintaining family relationships, supporting personal growth as well as maintaining and keeping the family system. Unlike the family environment, there were significant differences between the school environment of the progressive and the conventional school. The school environment of the progressive schools were found to be more supportive for the development of relationships between teachers and students especially in terms of cooperation, as well as support for the development of student’s personal growth such as developing skills for problem solving, experimenting and risk taking. School learning activities and classroom management are also better in the progressive schools such as engaging students in making class rules, giving more freedom for voicing opinions or ideas, and hands-on learning activities based on the students interests. The results of the figural and verbal creativity tests showed that samples from progressive schools scores higher than that of the conventional schools. ANCOVA test results demonstrate that the adjusted R square value of figural creativity level is 0.168 which means that 16.8 percent figural creativity is influenced by the child's age and the type of school while the number for the verbal creativity is 0.152 which means that 15.2 percent verbal creativity is influenced by the school environment and total family income. From the results of this study, it is indicated that the level of figural and verbal creativity levels are not entirely influenced by the family environment but the school environment whereas the type of school have a greater role in the development of creativity of children in the fourth and fifth grade. Knowing that creativity is becoming increasingly important for preparing the children future, it is advisable for parents to choose schools that pay more attention to the development of creativity for children. Teachers and schools planning to make a change from the conventional system towards a progressive system may need to develop coaching/training associated with creative teaching methods, classroom managements and fun learning environment. For researchers who will conduct similar research, it is necessary to examine other factors that may affect the creativity of children, especially those related to the child's emotional state or attitude while they are being observed. For the government, especially the Ministry of National Education, there is a need to examine alternative educational system which will give more emphasis for the development of students’ selfreliance and creativity.
- MT - Human Ecology