Tuna fisheries management strategies in an optimal and sustainable in Buru District, Maluku Province
Laitupa, Jufri Pachri
Wisudo, Sugeng Hari
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Tuna fishery is one of the leading sectors of fisheries in Buru District. This fishery has been going on a few years ago, and an artisanal fisheries that have evolved from the subsistence fisheries to commercial fisheries. This sector is a significant contribution to meeting the needs of food, employment, public welfare, and the development of regional economy. Sustainability of these contributions, depending on the management of the fishery. Good fisheries management is to ensure the sustainability of the fish resources, environmental, socio-economic, and institutional aspects. To carry out the management approach, it takes a variety of information such as biology, ecology, socio-economic and institutional information, as an evaluation, improvisation, and execution management. This study was conducted as an attempt to provide such information . The purpose of this study was to : (1) analyzing the condition of tuna resources in Buru District which includes estimates of potential maximum sustainable yields and some population parameters, (2) to analyze the feasibility of tuna fishing units, (3) optimization of the allocation of fishing effort, and (4) formulate strategies for optimal and sustainable management of tuna fisheries in Buru District . Surplus production model (SPM) was used to assess the maximum sustainable yield of tuna fish resources. Some parameters of tuna populations known with length and weight analysis, the pattern of growth, mortality rate and exploitation rate. Feasibility of tuna fishing units were analyzed using financial feasibility analysis, which consists of business analysis and investment criteria analysis. Business analysis include: analysis of revenue, revenue cost ratio (R/C), payback period (PP) and the break-even point (BEP). Analysis of investment criteria include the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and net benefit cost ratio (Net B/C). Optimization of the allocation of fishing unit, calculated using a linear goal programming (LGP). Formulation and prioritization of management strategies performed with strength weakness opportunity threath analysis (SWOT), and analysis of quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM). Maximum sustainable yield of tuna fish resources in Buru District estimated at about 867 tons/year, with optimum fishing effort is at 1101 units/year. Fork length and weight of tuna fish caught that ranged from 85.5 to 170.8 cm (L = 180.6 cm) and 12.0 to 91.8 kg, with a range of ages 1–6 years, fishing mortality enough high, with the rate of exploitation between the years 2010–2011 has exceeded the optimum exploitation rate in the range 65% –74%, where the actual fishing effort exceeds the optimum fishing effort. Feasibility analysis of the three categories handline units conducted with business analysis and analysis of investment criteria, showed that handline units that has a good business feasibility is, the first, handline unit 5.5 HP with an annual profit of Rp10 710 407, revenue cost ratio (R/C) > 1, the payback period is 1.30 years, the value of BEP is Rp15,485,903 or 939.88 kg, with NPV value is Rp42,714,374 > 0 , IRR (84.6%) > 12% and Net B/C (4.06) > 1. Second, handline unit 15 HP with an annual profit of Rp15,164,117, revenue cost ratio of 1.14, the payback period is 2.37 years , the value of BEP is Rp 45,325,932 or 1941.66 kg, NPV value is Rp45,673,149 > 0, IRR (47,02% ) > 12% and Net B/C (2.27 ) > 1. While handline unit 40 PK based on analysis of the business, have a lower feasibility with an annual profit of Rp4 266 486, R/C of 1.04 , PP 11.09 years, the value of BEP is BEP Rp80,346,160 or 3626.39 kg , and based analysis of investment criteria, this unit is not feasible to be developed in the long term because it has NPV < 0 , IRR < 12% and Net B / C < 1 . Optimization allocation tuna fishing unit in Buru District which is based on the aim of optimizing the utilization of tuna fish stocks, fishing effort benefits, fisheries employment, use of ice, and revenue receipts, obtained optimum allocation of fishing unit is equal to 86 units of hand line unit 15 HP and 28 units of handline unit 40 HP. Optimal and sustainable management of tuna fisheries in Buru District can be done by applying some strategies with the following priorities : (1) improvement and optimization of infrastructure functions, (2) the establishment and implementation of regulations related to the control of fishing activities, (3) the provision of capital investment in tuna fishery sector and the business sector to support it, (4) improving the quality of tuna products, (5) increasing knowledge and skills of fishermen/entrepreneurs about the handling of the catch, (6) the development of tuna fisheries in accordance with the geographical and resource potential, (7) diversification fishing effort by diverting excess fishing unit types to capture other fish species, (8) setting of the fisheries business climate, (9) documenting accurately and comprehensively about fishermen, fishing unit and fish resources (10) setting the illegal mining activity and zoning mining waste, and (11) controls the distribution and expansion of access to fuel oil and the introduction of energy-efficient fishing machine.
- MT - Fisheries