Analisis embriogenesis somatik kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada sistem perendaman sesaat
Analysis of somatic embryogenesis of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) using temporary immersion system.
Marbun, Cynthia Lendria Magdalena
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Micropropagation of oil palm through somatic emrbyogenesis is still not efficient because low percentage of somatic embryo formation and germinating somatic embryo. The objectives of these research are to obtain the best of (i) liquid medium used in shaker technique, (ii) medium and immersion time in Temporary Immersion System (TIS), (iii) to identify the marker of embryogenic callus with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and (iv) to identify genetic changing in vitro (off-type) from 14 months of somatic embryo with Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR). The planting materials were embryogenic callus of embryoid-lines S15.355 and S82.132. Two types of medium consisted of MSK and MSD were tested in shaker technique, with the addition of several vitamines and combination of 0; 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 mg/L 2,4-D with 0; 4.0; 8.0 mg/L NAA. Medium MSD0 and MSD2 were used in TIS with every 1, 3, and 6 hours of immersion time and immersed in 3 minutes. Analysis marker for embryogenic and non embryogenic callus conducted by SEM and molecular marker by 20 microsatellite primers. The results showed that medium MSD2 is the best for increasing the proliferation of embryogenic callus and enlarging the somatic embryo of oil palm. Besides, types of genotypes gave different proliferation rate in diferrent medium composition and immersion time. The immersion time of 1, 3, and 6 hour showed no significant difference in increasing rate of embryogenic callus fresh weight for embryoid-line S15.355 and S82.132, respectively. Embryogenic callus analysed by SEM showed that embryogenic callus had smoother and lighter surfaces compared with non embryogenic callus. The result of SSR analysis showed that only 10 primers gave polimorphic bands and the others gave monomorphic. There was no genetic changing in vitro (off-type) from 14 months of samples.