Mini tuber production of potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) on aeroponics system by tuberization induction
Produksi benih umbi mini kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) secara aeroponik melalui induksi pengumbian
Susila, Anas D.
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Low productivity of potato Indonesia is mainly caused by low utilization of quality potato seed. The availability of nationally certified potato in Indonesia is only 15% total of 103,582 ton of year. Mini tuber production by spraying nutrient to plant roots as aeroponics system, began to developed in Indonesia. Conventional production system produced abi.mt3-5 tuber per plant, while aeroponics system about 16-29 tubers per plant. The absence of barrier in the root on aeroponics system made stolon number more than 10, while the number of secondary stolon branches from 10-15. However, the of tuber formation was estimated only 5-10% of total of 100-150 stolons per plant. it is still a high potency to the number tubers by various' ways. This of was to rate application of NPK foliar and paclobutrazol (PBZ) to increase potato mini tuber production on aeroponics system. was conducted in a plastic house in Lembang, West Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, from December 2010 to October 201 The research 1 a was conducted to mini tuber production using several rates of nitrogen foliar fertilizer. Randomized Block Design was used with one factor of nitrogen foliar rates 0, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg N L-' tra..flsplanting (WA T) weekly. The results that Ca(N03h tuber weight plant significantly by 17%, from but there was no increasing tuber fonnation from stolon on yet. The optimum rate of foliar of Ca(N03h for was 2173 rrig N . The of 1 b was conducted to increase mini tuber production using rates of fosfor foliar fertilizer. Randomized Block Design was used with one factor of fosfor foliar fertilizer rates i.e. 0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg P in six replications. The foliar fertilizer H3P04 was applied at 1-4 W A T weekly. The showed that foliar fertilizer of H3P04 increased number mediumtubers significantly by 25% from 12.7 to 16.8, but there was no increasing tuber formation from stolon on aeroponics yet. optimum rate of foliar fertilizer of H3P04 for number was P The research of 1 c was conducted to increase mini tuber production several rates potassium foliar fertilizer. Randomized Block was used with one factor of potassium foliar fertilizer rates 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg K L-1 in six replications. The foliar of was applied at 2-8 WAT weekly. results showed that fertilizer of K2S04 increased tuber plant significantly by 26% from 53.2 to 71.6 but there was no increasing fonnation from stolon on aeroponics yet. The optimum rate of foliar fertilizer of K2S04 tuber per plant was 1917 mg . of 2 was conducted to tuber production by application times of N+P and Randomized Block ------- Design was used with two treatment factors in three replications. The first treatment factor was application times ofN+P foliar fertilizer i.e. 1-3 WAT, 1-4 WAT, 1-5 W AT, and 1-6 W A T. The second treatment factor was application times of K foliar fertilizer i.e. 1-8 WAT, 2-8 W AT, 3-8 W AT, 4-8 W AT, and 5-8 WAT. The results showed that the application time of N+P foliar fertilizer which was 1-4 WAT weekly has 19.1 tubers. The applicatiohtime ofK foliar fertilizer which vJas 5-8 WAT weekly has 17.6 tubers. The application times ofNPK foliar fertilizer could not increase tuber formation from stolon on aeroponics system yet. The research of 3 was conducted to increase mini tuber production by using several rates and times of PBZ application on aeroponics system. Two treatment factors were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design in three rerlications. The first treatment factor was rates of PBZ i.e. 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L-. The second treatment factor was application times of PBZ i.e. 4 W A T; 5 WAT; 6 WAT; 4 and 5 WAT; 5 and 6 WAT; 4,5, and 6 WAT. Control was no PBZ application. The results showed that the range of optimum rate of PBZ was J7.9 -21.3 mg PBZ L-1 and the maximum of number of tubers was 24.8 -35.2. The application 0[20.9 mg PBZ L-1 on 6 WAT increased significantly numbers of total-tuber by 65% from 12.3 to 35.2. Paclobutrazol increased tuber formation from stolon significantly by 59% from llA to 28.1 on aeroponics system. Minituber production on aeroponics system can cut the system of seed production of potato nationally without G 1 planting, because of reduced time and production cost, and more environmental friendly. The mini tuber production on aeroponics system could increase supply of GO seed nationally and potato production.