Adaptasi tanaman gandum (Triticum aestivum l.) Toleran suhu tinggi dan peningkatan keragaman genetik melalui induksi mutasi dengan menggunakan iradiasi sinar gamma
Adaptation of wheat lines (Triticum aestivum l.) Tolerance high temperature and improved genetic variation through mutation induction using gamma-ray irradiation.
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Characteritation of ten wheat introduced genotypes and two varieties of wheat in two seasons and elevations showed different responses tested at any observed agronomical characters. Agronomical and physiological characters with high heritability estimated value and wide genetic variability were plant height, spikelet number and flag leaf area. There were five traits that directly affected seed weight/plant namely number of seeds/spike, number of seeds/plant, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll characters. Index genotype sensitivity to high temperatures vary greatly based on the character were observed, the yield character of OASIS/SKAUZ//4 * BCN Var-28 genotype had a medium tolerance in two seasons. The G-21 and LAJ tolerance can be selected based on weight of seeds/spike, chlorophyll b, and yield characters, while Oasis tolerance can be selected based on the length of spike and grain weight/plant (2010). Genotype Oasis, H-21, and LAJ, Basribey tolerance can be selected based on the weight of seeds/plant and seed weight/spike. The Interaction of genotype x season x elevation significantly affected plant height, days of flowering, number of spikelet, number of floret, seed weight/spike, seed filling rate, yield, flag leaf area, stomata density, chlorophyll b and the leaves greeness characters. There only the location x genotype interactions affected the harvest, percent floret sterile, the number of seeds/panicle, 1000 grain weight, number and weight malai/m2 seeds/plants. Two genotypes had higher yield than comparable varieties Selayar the Basribey (2.00 t.ha-1) and Alibey (2.13 t.ha-1) in both elevation and two seasons. The HP 1744 is a stable genotype (1.75 t.ha-1), H-21 (1.82 t.ha-1) and varieties Selayar (1.92 t.ha-1). The results showed that the orientation of dose dose> 400 gy cause seedling growth under stress and cause the sprouts do not contain chlorophyll. Dose of 300 gy field research led to the death of 50% of the population in the irradiated plants. Gamma ray irradiation at 300 gy dose did not show significant effect on all the characters in M1 plants. The genetic diversity of the population appears M2 of all strains were irradiated. The characters that unaffected by the season, but only by the location x genotype interactions were the harvest time, percent of hollow floret, the number of seeds/spike, 1000 grain weight, number of spike/m2 and seed weight/plant. Basribey (2.00 t.ha-1) and Alibey (2.13 t.ha-1) genotypes had higher yield than comparator varieties (Selayar) in both elevations and two seasons. The stable genotype were HP 1744 (1.75 t.ha -1), H-21 (1.82 t.ha-1) and Selayar (1.92 t.ha-1) varieties. The results of orientation dose showed that the > 400 gy dosage caused seedling growth experienced stress and the sprouts did not contain chlorophyll. Dose of 300 gy on field research led to the death of 50% of the irradiated plant population. Gamma ray irradiation with dose of 300 gy did not show significant effect on all the characters in M1 plants. The character with moderate to wide genetic variability was harvest time. The number of hollow floret had wide genetic variability excepting in M2 population derived from Selayar varieties. The form of M3 populations at >1000 m asl was better than < 400 m asl elevation. The M3 population had the highest median alteration were Kasifbey, Rabe and Basribey. Genetic variability and value of estimated heritability in elevation of <400 m asl wider and higher than >1000 m asl. Generally, the value of estimated heritability and genetic variability in the observed characters of the M4 generation either from elevation < 400 m asl and > 1000 m asl were high and wide, unless the character of grain weight/spike.
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