Peran fungi Mikoriza Arbuskkular dan bakteri endosimbiotik mikoriza dalam meningkatkan daya adaptasi bibit kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) terhadap cekaman biotik patogen ganoderma boninense Pat.
Role of Arbusccular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria in increasing oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) seedlings adaptation towards biotic stress of fungal pathogen ganoderma boninense Pat.
Sinaga, Meity S.
Budi, Sri Wilarso
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Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Indonesia and it has caused major loss in palm oil production. Under natural conditions, oil palm is often colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and together with mycorrhizosphere bacteria offer possible advantages in increasing plant adaptation against biotic stress of pathogen. This research comprised five interrelated experiments, namely: (1) Exploration, Isolation and Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Mycorrhizal Endosymbiotic Bacteria from Oil Palm Rhizosphere and Their Ability in Inducing Oil Palm Adaptation Towards Biotic Stress of Pathogen Ganoderma boninense Pat; (2) Selection of Mycorrhizal Endosymbiotic Bacteria on Spores Germination of AMF Gigaspora margarita and Their Inhibition Towards Fungal Pathogen G. boninense Pat; (3) Identification of Active Compounds from Mycorrhizal Endosymbiotic Bacteria B. subtilis B10 that Inhibit the Growth of Fungal Pathogen G. boninense Pat; (4) Adaptation of Oil Palm Seedlings Inoculated with AMF and Mycorrhizal Endosymbiotic Bacteria B. subtilis B10 Towards Biotic Stress of Pathogen G. boninense Pat; (5) Analyzing the Response of Oil Palm Seedlings Inoculated with AMF and Mycorrhizal Endosymbiotic Bacteria in the Form of Active Compound Profile as Expression of Oil Palm Adaptation Towards Biotic Stress of Pathogen G. boninense Pat. The soil sampels were used in this experiment came from Aek Pancur Plantation belong to Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute, Medan. The results showed that twenty isolates of mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria were obtained from spores of AMF isolated from oil palm rhizosphere and were dominated by genus of Bacillus sp. Among these isolates, isolate B10 identified based on 16S rDNA as Bacillus subtilis B10, had the highest activity against G. boninense in vitro by producing intracellular active compounds with molecular weight 255.39 and postulated as of 2-(4-aminophenoxy)-6-methyl-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5- triol. Dual inoculation of AMF and B. subtilis B10 on oil palm seedlings resulted in the lowest basal stem rot disease incidence caused by G. boninese which indicated disease severity index was only 5% and necrotic area of roots just 10%. Application of AMF together with B. subtilis B10 also increased oil palm seedlings height, root dry weight and stem diameter at 52 weeks after planting. The adsorption of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) increased when seedlings were co-inoculated with AMF and bacteria B. subtilis B10 together. This finding is important in terms of recommendation for application of AMF and bacteria B. subtilis B10 as biocontrol of pathogen G. boninense causal agent of basal stem rot in oil palm.Penyakit busuk pangkal batang yang disebabkan oleh fungi Ganoderma boninense merupakan penyakit yang paling serius pada kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis) di Indonesia karena menyebabkan kerugian besar dalam produksi minyak kelapa sawit. Secara alami, tanaman kelapa sawit dikolonisasi oleh fungi mikoriza arbuskular (FMA) dan telah diketahui memberikan manfaat bagi kelapa sawit. Di daerah rizosfir berbagai jenis mikroorganisme termasuk bakteri hidup di sekitar mikoriza dan mengambil manfaat dari berbagai jenis senyawa organik yang dilepaskan oleh tanaman. Mikroorganisme ini memberikan manfaat bagi perkembangan dan stabilitas mikoriza maupun terhadap tanaman inangnya.
- DT - Agriculture