Inokulasi fungi mikoriza arbuskula untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan mutu benih cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) serta efisiensi penggunaan pupuk P
Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to increase yield and quality of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L) seed and phosphorus fertilization efficiency.
Budi, Sri Wilarso
Suwarno, Faiza C
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Pepper production has not been achieving optimal results although demands are increasing. The low production of pepper is partly because the use of seed that has not qualified in quantity and quality. Besides that, pepper is cultivated on the marginal soil such as Ultisol. Nutrient availability, such as P, within the marginal soil is very limited whereas there is high fixations of P. Phosporus provide the important role to increase the quality and production of the seeds. One of the efforts to boost the availability and to make the using of P efficient is inoculating Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF). This research is aimed to isolate indigenous AMF from hot pepper plant rhizosphere, effective AMF selection, and to examine AMF effectiveness in enhancing production and quality of pepper seeds while the use of fertilizer whether or not efficient was then observed. Research conducted contains of four experiments which each experiment links to another. Those are:  Isolation, characterization and purification of AMF for three places of hot pepper plantation;  Selection of AMF effective in increasing the growth of hot pepper;  Examination of AMF effectiveness in boosting up the production and quality of pepper seeds and using efficiency of P fertilizer,  Plant response to inoculation inoculum of indigenous mixed AMF and AMF Mycofer. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry IPB, Forests and Environmental Biotech Laboratory, Research Centre for Biological Resources and Biotechnology IPB, and the PPPPTK Pertanian greenhouse. The soil samples were observed coming from the three planting sites rhizosphere hot pepper. Selections are made to the effective AMF isolates from single spore culture results and AMF Mycofer from laboratory Biotech Forest and Environment, Research Centre for Biological Resources and Biotechnology IPB. Testing the effectiveness of using the design plots are divided (split-split plot) in a Randomized design pattern, with three factors and three replications. The main plot is hot pepper cultivar: Laris type from Panah Merah and Tegar from Surabumi. The sub plot is the inoculant arbuscular mycorrhizae which are uninoculated and inoculated of Mycofer AMF 100 spores per seedling. The sub-sub plot are some level of P205 dose: without fertilizer P and with 100 kg/ha of P2O5, 125 kg/ha P2O5, 150 kg P2O5. Experiment of plant response to inoculation of indigenous mixed AMF and Mycfer AMF was arranged in split plot design, the main plot: hot pepper cultivar. The sub plot is the inoculant arbuscular mycorrhiza: uninoculated, inoculated of Mycofer AMF 100 spores per seedling, and inoculated of indigenous mixed AMF. The results showed that the pepper rhizosphere is found in three genus nine species spores i.e. two species of Glomus, three species of Gigaspora and four species of Acaulospora. Based on a single spore culture, it was found that only three species that can grow and develop properly; one species of Glomus spores (Glomus sp-1), one species of Gigaspora (Gigaspora sp-1) and one species of Acaulospora (Acaulospora sp-3). The three species of these spores are propagated for experimental material II. In AMF effective selection, spores of Mycofer showed better results than the three indigenous species whereas AMF Mycofer was able to infect the roots of 87.4%. The effectiveness testing showed that iuit weight, and seed weight per plant on Laris by 2.7%, 30.4%, 8.4%, while on Tegar 35.8%, 16.6%, 23%. Inoculation of AMF improved the effectiveness of P fertilizer at all levels. Plants inoculated with AMF and P fertilizer showed better results compared with the P fertilizer without AMF inoculation, and the optimal dose 125 kg/ha on the number of fruits, fruit yield, and seed yield, which were respectively increased by 7.2%, 38.5%, and 14.0%. Improved results were assocated with increasing nutrient uptake and uptake efficiency. Interaction betwen AMF and P fertilization on cv. Laris and cv. Tegar was able to increase nutrient uptake of N, P, and K, in cv. Laris respectively of 57.7%, 155%, 44.3%, while in cv. Tegar respectively by 61.5%, 69.3%, 60.6%. Physiological quality of the harvested seeds (percent of germination, relative speed of germination, index of vigor, and spontaneity of seedling growth) was influenced significantly by P fertilization and inoculation with AMF. Inoculation of AMF and P2O5 fertilization at 100 kg/ha increased spontaneity grew 16.1%. Based on the results of experiments on nearly all parameters, AMF inoculation on P2O5 fertilizer at 100kg/ha, 125 kg/haand 150 kg/ha not significant in influencing the growth, yield and quality of the harvested seeds. Inoculation of AMF and P2O5 ferlilization at 100 kg/ha reduced the use of the SP 36 138.9 kg/ha (equal to 50 kg P2O5). The mixed inoculum of indigenous AMF and Mycofer showed promoting growth and crop production. The both of inoculum is not significantly.Permintaan cabai terus meningkat, sementara hasil belum mencapai optimal. Rendahnya produksi cabai antara lain disebabkan karena penggunaan benih yang belum memenuhi syarat baik jumlah maupun mutu dan sebagian besar penanaman cabai pada tanah yang marjinal seperti Ultisol. Pada tanah marjinal ketersedian hara terutama P sangat terbatas, dimana terdapat fiksasi P yang tinggi. Fosfat sangat berperan dalam meningkatkan produksi dan mutu benih. Salah satu upaya yang dilakukan untuk meningkatkan ketersediaan dan efisiensi penggunaan P adalah dengan menginokulasi fungi mikoriza arbuskula (FMA). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi FMA indigenous dari rhizosfer penanaman cabai, seleksi FMA efektif serta menguji efektivitas FMA dalam meningkatkan produksi dan mutu benih cabai serta efisiensi penggunaan pupuk P. Penelitian terdiri atas empat percobaan yang masing-masing memiliki keterkaitan yaitu: (1) Isolasi, karakterisasi dan pemurnian FMA dari tiga lokasi penanaman cabai, (2) Seleksi FMA efektif dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan cabai, (3) Pengujian efektivitas FMA dalam meningkatkan produksi dan mutu benih serta efisiensi penggunaan pupuk P, (4) Tanggap tanaman terhadap inokulasi inokulum FMA indigenous campuran dan inokulum FMA Mycofer. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium dan rumah kaca Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan IPB, Laboratorium Bioteknologi Hutan dan Lingkungan, Pusat Penelitian Sumberdaya Hayati dan Bioteknologi IPB, rumah kaca Pusat dan Laboratorium Teknologi Benih, Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan Pertanian Cianjur.
- DT - Agriculture