Pemekaran Wilayah Analysis And The Development Of Centrals Of Economic Growth (A Study At Baubau City South Sulawesi Province And Tasikmalaya City West Java Province).
Putri, Eka Intan Kumala
Siregar, Hermanto J
Bratakusumah, Deddy Supriady
MetadataShow full item record
Decentralization and regional autonomy are important issues since the prevailing of Act No. 22, 1999 revised by Act No. 32, 2004 on Regional Government. Decentralization and regional autonomy through the implication of pemekaran wilayah has encouraged demand from other areas to have pemekaran wilayah due to the gap and inequality felt by those areas regarding development results. A centralistic governmental system has made local areas under developed. Therefore, many areas has demanded for pemekaran wilayah in order to accelerate development and reduce developmental gap among areas. Pemekaran wilayah as a phenomenon of the formation of provinces, regencies and cities has created differences among areas. There are areas with population/activities concentrated in certain area known as cities, centers of trade, centers of industry, industrial knot, urban areas or nodal areas. There are also, however, areas with less concentration known as hinterland, agricultural area, and rural area. The creation of nodal areas is not only in provincial level but also in the level of regency/city. Regency has wide area and divides into two administrative areas, municipality and regency. The rural area (municipal) is made as the central of economic activities (central of growth) and regency area is the hinterland. The research aims to: 1) evaluate the implementation of Government Regulation No. 78, 2007 on the Procedures of Areas Establishment, Removal and Merger especially factors used to assess proposal of pemekaran wilayah at Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities; 2) analyze the development of economic structure of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities and their leading sectors that become their economic competitiveness thus they will have potential to become the centrals of growth compare to their surrounding areas; 3) analyze the regional development, economic interaction and attraction of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities toward their surrounding areas; 4) analyze stakeholders’ perception and formulate beneficial policies for government after the pemekaran wilayah. Methods used in the research are: 1) descriptive analysis, 2) Schallogram Analysis, 3) Gravity Model Analysis, 4) Klassen Typology Analysis, 5) Entropy Diversity Analysis, 6) Shift Share Analysis, 7) Location Quotient Analysis, and 7) Process Hierarchy Analysis. Research results show that: evaluation on eleven assessment factors of pemekaran wilayah proposal based on Government Regulation No. 78, 2007 using analytical hierarchy process shows priorities differences on eleven factors of the formation of new autonomy area based on Government Regulation No. 78, 2007 with the perception of societies at Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities. Regional economic structure of Baubau and Tasikmalaya is more advanced and developed than the hinterlands. It is indicated by the result of entropy diversity analysis. Result of Klasen Typology Analysis shows that Baubau City is within the classification of fast growing area along with its hinterlands, which are Wakatobi and North Buton Regencies; whereas, Muna Regency is within the classification of advanced but depressed area and Buton and Bombana Regencies are within the viii classification of relatively underdeveloped areas. Result of Klasen Typology analysis shows that Tasikmalaya City is within the classification of fast growing area and its hinterlands are within the classification of relatively underdeveloped areas. Result of Location Quotient Analysis shows that the economic sector of Baubau and Tasikmalay Areas is more advanced and superior. The leading sectors that are the basic sectors of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities are development, trade, hotel and restaurant, transportation and communication, finance, leasing and financial services and services sectors. Shift Share Analysis in local level (differential shift), however, shows that the basic sectors of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities are experiencing a shift and slow growth. Result of Schallogram Analysis shows that Baubau City is in Hierarchy II/Medium area and its hinterland, North Buton Regency, is in Hierarchy I/High and Buton,and Muna Regencies are in Hierarchy III/Low. Result of Schallogram Analysis shows that Tasikmalaya City is in Hierarchy I/High area and its hinterland, Garut and Ciamis Regencies are in Hierarchy II/Medium and Tasikmalaya,and Banjar Regencies are in Hierarchy III/Low. Result of Gravity Analysis shows that the intensity of economic interaction and attraction of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities with their hinterlands are varied. Strong economic interaction and attraction is indicated by Baubau City with Buton and Muna Regencies; whereas Baubau City with North Buton, Wakatobi and Bombana Regencies has a very weak interaction and attraction indicated by small gravity index. Economic interaction and attraction of Tasikmalaya City area with its hinterland shows strong intensity with Tasikmalaya and Ciamis Regencies indicated from large gravity index and it is very weak with Garut, Banjar and Pangandaran Regencies indicated by small gravity index. Result of society’s perception analysis using analytical hierarchy process (AHP), in general, shows that pemekaran wilayah gives great benefit for the society in terms of income, service and the availability of infrastructure and the development of regional economy of Baubau and Tasikmalaya Cities. Result of AHP analysis shows that from four alternative strategies in the research, the main priority of alternative strategy is pemekaran wilayah creates central of growth (PW-PP).