Perilaku Kewirausahaan pada Usaha Mikro Kecil (UMK) di Bogor, Jawa Barat
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Entrepreneurial was believed as the wheel of economic growth, as well as entrepreneur is also regarded as an innovator in economic development. The high percentage of the number of entrepreneurs in a country have correlation with the growing well economy (Schumpeter in Casson et al 2006). Data from Kemenkop stated that dominant business in Indonesia is from Micro Small Enterprises (MSEs) with a percentage of 90 %. Nevertheless, this business owner is not counted as an entrepreneur in accordance with Kemenkop assessment. This is associated with the accorded data of number entrepreneurs in Indonesia during 2013, only range about 1.90 % of the total population in Indonesia. This percentage is still very small compared to other Asian countries, Referring to the definition of entrepreneur as an individual who has the ability to create something, to work alone, and to face the risk by leveraging existing opportunities (Casson et al 2006). Empowering the Micro Small Enterprises (MSEs) is one of the best strategic plan because of it has not only great potential in activating economic activities, but also for increasing source of income to improve the welfare of community. Small micro-business is a business that is able to withstand the crisis, as well as micro enterprises that produce tempe in Indonesia. This enterprises has unique characteristics and supply raw materials for producing tempe 100 % derived from soybean imports. Thus, the price change of soybeans will directly influence to business development and also the behavior of producers in negotiating for these circumstances. This enterprises was mostly hereditary, traditional, and small scale home business. However, despite these enterprises are constrained by prices of raw materials and capital, entrepreneurs persist to exist for years despite business growth is not significant . Thus, that behaviors underlying above are the basis on this entrepreneurial behavior research in MSEs. The purpose of this study were (1) identify the characteristics of entrepreneurs in MSE industry (2) analyze the effect of entrepreneurial characteristics and the business climate for entrepreneurial behavior (3) analyze the effect of entrepreneurial behavior on its performance. This research was conducted in Bogor, West Java from November 2014 until July 2015. The number of samples was 121 respondents, taken with purposive sampling technique. Primary data was collected by direct interviews with questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis with Structural Equation Models (SEM). Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the characteristics of entrepreneurs, while SEM is used to analyze the relationship between exogenous latent variables of entrepreneurial characteristics and the business climate with latent variables of entrepreneurial behavior and perspective business performance. Descriptive analysis showed that entrepreneurial characteristics was found on the MSE, and increasing scale of production it will be influence on entrepreneurial characteristics. The results of SEM analysis showed that internal factors entrepreneurial characteristics (EC) has a strong influence on entrepreneurial behavior of producer (MSEs). The most variable that reflecting the entrepreneurial character tempe is innovative character. Innovative characteristics that was conducted by producer is innovate on the product, change the size, make a kind of super quality tempe, or make tempe with different packaging. Beside innovation on products, the innovation also performed well on the equipment for tempe producting, and innovations in the way of marketing . External factors of business climate (BC) that affect entrepreneurial behavior, the most reflected variable on the business climate is great relationship among producers tempe. Compactness was shown with togetherness when producing tempe and forming organizations of producers tempe association. Beside that, behavior of tempe producers affect existend of the business performance perspective (BPP). The greatest variable entrepreneurial behavior was reflected by the cognitive (knowledge). As for business performance perspective, the greatest variabel was reflected by variable ability to compete. Competition among tempe producers is very high, because the supply of tempe is greater that the market area. The ability to compete was demonstrated by tempe producers with vary packaging product according to the wishes of consumers, using raw materials that are safe for health, as well as provide brand on products. The implication of this research is the need for the government's role in regulating pricing regulation in soybean imports, because soybean are major raw material for this enterprises. In addition, the role of government is also required in the provision of a viable marketing. Another role of the relevant institutions is the reactivation of tempe producers membership in the cooperative. This is to support the outcomes on the business with the help of good counseling and assistance from cooperative.
- MT - Economic and Management