Analisis Pembayaran Jasa Lingkungan Air Bersih Di Hulu DAS Latuppa Kota Palopo Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan
Yasir, Jibria Ratna
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The increasing number of population and economic growth lead to the increasing of water demand. Furthermore, it will also affect the availability of fresh water to meet the needs of human activities. UNEP (2002) reported that the total of water consumption in the world reach 12.500-14.00 km3 per year. This number is believed will continuously increase as the increasing needs of a better life. The rise of watershed degradation (DAS) in supporting human activities leads to the increasing of people awareness to keep it sustainable. One way is to conduct an environmental policy that can control the use of resources (water resource) in a watershed area. One of watershed area in Sulawesi that serve fresh water for many people is Latuppa watershed in Palopo City. The watershed has big potential to support human life, such as a source of fresh water for water supply corporation (PDAM) of Palopo and for agriculture irrigation. But, the Latuppa watershed is now facing a serious problem, characterized by its biophysical changes due to the continuous unsustainable use by the community, either timber exploitation and firewood, housing, as well as the agricultural activities. As a consequence, flood is happened in rainy season and drought in dry season occurred in the last decade. Those problems faced by the upstream and downstream Latuppa watershed user including PDAM Palopo City, which is the water form Latuppa watershed is a source of intake for their corporation. Fluctuation of water volume in Latuppa river lead to disruption of the distribution of fresh water distribution to consumers of PDAM due to over capacity of water in rainy season with high contaminated and scarcity in dry season that could not fulfill the intake capacity of water production in PDAM Palopo. Therefore, the protection of water use system in the watershed area (DAS) of Latuppa upstream using payment mechanism for ecosystem services was initiated to minimize degradation of water catchment area that was purposed to maintain the continuity of fresh water produced by PDAM. The general objective of this study is to estimate the amount (price) of compensation for the upstream community keep the watershed sustain and provided appropriate organization to handle payment of environmental service to fresh water in Latuppa upstream area. The specific purposes of this study are: (1) to study local community’ perceptions and behavior for rehabilitating land and water in the upstream of Latuppa watershed, (2) to estimate the contribution of the economic value of raw water for the PDAM of Palopo, (3) to assess the ability of PDAM to pay for keeping the water catchment area in the upstream in order to remain sustainable supply of raw water, (4) analyze the institutional mechanisms for the implementation of payment for ecosystem services of fresh water in Latuppa watersheds. This research was conducted in two sub-districs, Mungkajang and Sendana, as two major areas located in Latuppa upstream of water stream area (DAS) Palopo. The data used were primary and secondary data. This research used Spearmen analysis (Likert scale), The mean score to identify population’s perceptions and attitudes towards conservation in water stream of Latuppa upstream, Residual value in production using Residual imputation approach to estimate contribution of economic value to water supply of PDAM Palopo, and Conversion value to study capability of PDAM to pay protection of water catchment area in upstream. To analyze elements involved in providing organization that would handle payment of environmental service in water stream of Latuppa area, analysis of stakeholders was used. Latuppa upstream communities in District Mungkajang and Sendana as a provider of ecosystem services especially To'buangin and Se'pon farmer groups are willing to rehabilitate land and water in the upstream of Latuppa watersheds area through payment mechanisms for ecosystem services. The total contribution of water rent to PDAM Palopo in 2013 was Rp 5.876.247.800. PDAM Palopo was able to distribute 5% of net profit to the population in water stream, Latuppa upstream especially to farmer groups of To’buangin and Se’pon in order to rehabilitate land and water in upstream area. PDAM Palopo and to farmer groups of To’buangin and Se’pon were primary stakeholders and Wallacea Palopo, Forum of DAS Paremang, Forestry department in Palopo, agriculture department in Palopo, BPDAS Saddang, BLH Palopo, and PSDA Palopo were secondary stakeholders by which they will involve in organization of payment of environmental service to fresh water in Palopo.
- MT - Economic and Management