Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Biji Mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.) pada jaringan Hati dan Ginjal Tikus Model Diabetes: Studi Imunohistokimia
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome metabolic disease that can be indicated with high of blood glucose levels. The decreasing of carbohydrate metabolism, protein, and lipid in DM caused by deficiency and resistance of insulin. The DM condition has increased production of free radical and reactive oxygen spesies (ROS) that create a situation of known as oxidative stress, which antioxidant is lower than the amount of free radicals. As an alternative to handle oxidative stress condition, the patients of DM can consume high antioxidant plant to prevent the complication of the disease due to diabetes and to help lower of blood sugar. Any one of plant which has the antioxidant is the mahogany seeds (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.). The mahogany seeds were conducted from the Leuwiliang, Bogor Districts, West Java. The aim of this research were to: (1) analyze the antioxidant activity of an ethanol mahogany seeds extract, (2) measure the amount of feed consumption, body weight, and blood glucose levels of diabetic rats, (3) measure of malondialdehyde levels (MDA) of the liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats, and (4) analyze the content of antioxidant Cu,Zn-SOD of the liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats using immunohistochemical technique. The study was used male Rattus norvegicus strain Sprague Dawley. The rats were divided into 5 groups: (i) negative control group/ non DM (K-), (ii) positive control group/ DM (K+), (iii) DM group was treated with 500 mg/kgBW of the ethanol mahogany seeds extract (EM), (iv) DM group was treated with 2 mg/kgBW of acarbose (KO), and (v) non DM group was treated with 500 mg/kgBW of the ethanol mahogany seeds extract (KE). The condition of DM was obtained by alloxan (110 mg/kgBW) induction that injected by intraperitoneal. The the measurement of blood glucose levels was used glucometer two days after alloxan induced. The blood has taken with piercing the tip of tail rats using a frank needle. Furthermore, each group has given extract treatment once a day in the morning for 28 days. The treatment has given using sonde needle. The extracts was used an ethanol mahogany seed extract macerated with 96% ethanol solvent. The weight of feed consumption was conducted every day, while the measurement of blood glucose levels and body weight of rats was conducted every four days. The weight of feed number, body weight and measurement of blood glucose levels should be done every morning before the provision of extract treatment. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized with ketamine (75 mg/kgBW) and xylazine (8 mg/kgBW). The liver and kidney tissues were conducted and analyzed for (a) the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) using thiobarbiturate acid reactive substance (TBARS) method and (b) the content of antioxidant Cu,Zn-SOD using immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that an ethanol mahogany seeds extract that macerated with 96% ethanol solvent have a weak in antioxidant activity. The DM rats that has given an ethanol mahogany seeds extract (EM) have the similiar number of feeds consumption (P>0.05) with K- group. This condition was followed by the increasing of body weight on the EM group with the K- group. The provision of an ethanol mahogany seeds extract (EM) also be able to decrease blood glucose levels in DM rats. The provision of an ethanol mahagony seeds extract can be reduce MDA levels of liver and kidney tissues in EM and KE group, so the results was similar (P>0.05) with K- group. The content of antioxidant Cu,Zn-SOD of the liver and kidney tissues rats has given an ethanol mahogany seeds extract (EM and KE) was higher than K+ group. It has shown with the number of hepatocyte and tubuli renalis cells which strong positive reaction (+++) (P<0.05) on the group has given an ethanol mahogany seeds extract (EM and KE) was higher than the K+ group, the number of cells which negative reaction (-) (P<0.05 ) in the EM and KE group than K+ group was lower than K+ group. Based on these results can be concluded that an ethanol mahogany seeds extract that macerated using 96% ethanol solvent have a weak in antioxidant activity. However the provision of an ethanol mahagony seeds extract can be increase the body weight of rats, decrease blood glucose levels and MDA levels of rats, and increase the content of antioxidant Cu,Zn-SOD in the liver and kidney tissues of rats.
- MT - Veterinary Science