Performance of Shallow Groundwater Irrigation Schemes in Nganjuk-East Java, Indonesia
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The use of shallow groundwater for irrigation in Indonesia has not shown maximum benefit yet. Improvements are still required in order to increase performance. The performance of shallow groundwater irrigation schemes (SGWIS) has been evaluated by using the parameters of well efficiency, pump operation, irrigation efficiency, and irrigation cost. Research indicates that well efficiency is around 55-77% with optimum discharge of 4-17 l/s. Relatively, the performance of pump operation was not optimum, and the irrigation efficiency varied at 49-81%. Irrigation cost was about 257 USD per Ha per planting season for onions; equal to 0.02 USD per kg of onion production. Based on existing criteria, the performance of SGWIS in Nganjuk was relatively better than that in other regions of Indonesia; nevertheless the performance might be able to be increased, either by improvement of pump operation management, improvement of the conveyance system, or improvement in the technology of irrigation application.