Biological Characteristics of Jatropha curcas Trimonoecious
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Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an original plant from tropical America belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae and an annual plant of monoecious. Commonly J.curcas have male and female flowers on the same plant. There are currently some J. curcas which have hermaphrodite flowers from monoecious plants, but very rarely. J. curcas with hermaphrodite flowers are classified as andromonoecious type (having hermaphrodite and male in the same plant) and trimonoecious type (having male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers in the plant). Trimonoecious plants with hermaphrodite flowers were tend to perform self-pollination (geitonogamy) and produce a homogenous and high-productivity in next generation. J. curcas plants is difficult in differentiating between monoecious and trimonoecious plants when it seedling, and this is a limiting factor to know development of trimonoecious J. curcas. Trimonoecious J.curcas can be identified after six months of planting, and when it have started flowering. Therefore, the trimonoecious J. curcas biological characteristics needs to be an observation. The trimonoecious trait in J. curcas plants can be identified through several analyses, i.e. the analysis of agronomical characteristics, the chromosomes analysis, the isozyme analysis, and the analysis of pollen viability. The study was conducted in December 2011 - February 2013. The experiments were conducted using the Randomized Complete Block Design for one factor, the J. curcas genotype with 5 replicates. Each unit of the experiment consisted of 5 plants. Aagronomics characteristic analyses were conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level. The classification of heritability and Genetic Variation Coefficient (GVC) criteria and relative Phenotypic Variation Coefficient (PVC). The analysis of genetic distance clustering was done using the Minitab 1.5 program clustering method. J. curcas stem trimonoecious characters is the primary branches angle, stem diameter, number of primary and secondary branches have a higher size than monoecious plants. Diameter and thickness fruit flesh origins from monoecious plants larger than fruit from plants trimonoecious. Characteristics of the trimonoecious plants in this study were almost the same with their mother plant. Number chromosomes number of J. curcas plant genotypes have 2n = 22 chromosomes The average length of the trimonoecious plant’s chromosome was longer than the average for monoecious plants. The length of chromosomes can differ among one family, even though the numbers of the chromosomes are similar. Isozymes peroxidase (Rf 0.83) and esterase (Rf 0.20) could be used as markers to differentiate between trimonoecious and monoecious plants. Male flower pollen viability of plant origin trimonoecious have a slower rate of decrease than male flowers monoecious plants. The dendrogram from the cluster analysis results could differentiate between trimonoecious and monoecious plants with a variation coefficient of 27.25.