Reproductive Performance And Lambs Survival Of Prolific Sheep Withaddition Of Sunflower Oil (Helianthus Annus) As A Source Of Linoleic Acid
G. Wiryawan, Komang
Setiadi, Mohamad Agus
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Garut sheep genetically is prolific, it gave birth two or more lambs, adaptability to environment. In fact the national productivity of local sheep still need to be improved. One of the efforts improvements that feeding strategy. Generally ration for livestock reproduction had calculated availability of macro nutrients such as protein and energy. Elements of micro minerals and vitamins that support the process of reproduction, however the availability of micro element such as essential fatty acids not yet to be considered and assessed extensively. The essential fatty acids such as linoleic isvery important in the diet, because the body can not synthesizes it. It can prepare with enrichment ration base on local feed with manipulation of fatty acid composition derived from sunflower oil (Helianthus annus Linn). This study has three main objectives: (1) toevaluate ration with different levels of sunflower oil on the reproductive performance of garut sheep, (2) to evaluate the increased levels of energy ration, with fat-rich unsaturated fatty acids from sunflower oil on the nutrient intake, rumen fermentability, performance and quality of ewes milk. and (3) to evaluate the performance pre-weaning lambs which were born from ewes fed rich linoleic diet. The experiment was conducted from May 2012 to February 2013, at Laboratory Analysis of Meat and Draught Animal Nutrition Science ,Faculty of Animal Science, Lab. Physiology and MicrobiologyLaboratory. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and IPB Integrated Laboratory. The First study were used 32 ewes garut primaparous (initial body weight 22.12 ±1.69 kg), and 4 rams with the same fertility treatmentsconsisted of four ration with different levels of sunflower oil.Levels of sunflower oil were added based on the maintenance level of linoleic acid. M0=without sunflower oil, M1=2% sunflower oil, M2= 4% sunflower oil and M3=6% sunflower oil. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used in the study. Parameters measured werethe feed intake and digestibility of nutrients, reproductive parameters, the synthesis of the progesteronehormone, blood metabolites in different phases, andthe growth of ewes and lambs. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Chi Square (χ2). Duncan test was used if significant difference. Some variables analysed descriptively, the relationship between variables was tested with simple regression. The first studyresults showed that the treatments did not significantly affect consumption of dry matter, protein and TDN, but significantly affect consumption of fat, linoleic acid and Beta-N (p<0.05).The treatments did not affect the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, beta-N, calcium and phosphorus, but crude fiber and crude fat was significantly affected by the treatments (p<0.05). Levels of glucose, cholesterol,progesteron, the percentage of pregnancy, number of embryos. Litter size and the sex ratio of lambs was high significantly affected (p<0.01) by treatments. In the second study were Sixteen ewes 1.5 years old used, first lactation and caged individually with lambs. Experimental design using a completely randomized design with different replications.The treatments consisted ration with different levels of sunflower oil, i.e. R1= ration with 0% sunflower oil addition, R2= ration with 4% sunflower oil addition, R3=ration with 6% sunflower oil addition. The treatmentsof feed,were given before mating until weaning. The variables measured were dry matter intake, consumption of nutrients, ewe performances (birth weight, weaning weight, shrinkage of body weight), levels of total and partial VFA, the ratio of acetate: propionate, methane production, protozoa population,production and quality of colostrum and milk.Data were analyzed statisticallyand descriptively. The results showed that the treatments did not influence dry matter intake, crude protein, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, but highly significant influence the consumption of fat. The treatmentsdid not significantly affect rumen fermentability and ewes performances,however reduces shrinkage of body weight,improve the ewes productivity and quality of milkeven though no statistical significant. Twenty four new birth lambs were used inthe third observation. Completely randomized design with different replications used in the study. Data were anakyzed variance (ANOVA) and continued with Duncan test. Fatty acid composition of milk, lamb mortality at birth were analyzed descriptively.The treatments consisted of diet by different levels of linoleic acid, namely Lhp= linoleate for maintenance, L2hp= 2 times linoleate maintenance, L3hp= 3 times linoleate maintenance.The parameters measured include: fatty acid composition of milk, birth weight, weaning weight, body weight gain, IgGlevels of colostral, ewes serum and lamb serum, behaviours of lambs, lamb mortality, and survival of lambs. The results showed that the addition of linoleic acid in the diet could improve the composition of unsaturated fatty acids ewe's milk.There were arachidonic acid (AA), gamma linoleic acid (GLA) and docosahexaeonic fatty acid (DHA) that important as a precursor of prostaglandin synthesis. Linoleic concentration in milk increase along with the levels of linoleic in ration .Birth weight, weaning weight and body weight gain 0 to 56 days of age were not significantly different, but the twins weight and body weight gain at the age of 0 to 28 days significantly affected (p<0.05). IgG concentration of colostrum, ewesserum and lamb serum both single and twins were not influenced. The treatments could improve behavour lambs.Birth mortality of Lhp,L2hp,L3hp was 0%,22.2%,16.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the addition of sunflower oil to 6% (linoleic acid to 3 times maintenance level) improve synthesis of steroid hormone, ovulation rate, multiple embryo and male sex ratio. It can improve ewesbody condition, acceleratedbody weight recovery, improving the quality of colostrum and milk produced.Improve fatty acid composition of ewesmilk and positively affect the performance and survival of prolific lambs.
- DT - Animal Science