Quantitative Traits Inheritance of Crossed Big and Curly Chili.
Istiqlal, Muhammad Ridha Alfarabi
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Chili is divided into types based on the fruit size, such as cayenne, big chili, curly chili and paprika. Varied behavior of Indonesian people in chili cultivating and consuming based on size causes low national chili productivity. First step in plant breeding was base population formation with high genetic variance. The genetic variance could be obtained by exploration, introduction, hybridization and mutation. Information of traits genetic inheritance was studied by hybridization. The research used 20 genotypes cultivated and characterized in two locations, i.e. Rimbo Panjang and Leuwikopo. Different places of cultivation were expected to separate the genetic-by-environment interaction effects from their genetic effects. Genotypes grouping based on the similarity using cluster analysis. High genetic coefficient and broad sense heritability were observed for several traits and proceed to get the selection criteria. Selection criterias used were yield per fruit, length of fruit, number fruit per plant and plant height. Then, genetic parameters, combining ability, heterosis and hybrid performance were observed from full diallel population (6×6). Genetic parameters were estimated by Hayman method while combining ability by Griffin method. Dunnett test was used to show hybrid performance. Genetic variance affected with several traits was additive and non-additive. Gene distribution did not spread evenly in parents, except leaves width, plant height, stem diameter and fruit stalk length. Partial dominance level affected each several traits performance. Number of controlling gene groups of traits were ranged between one to four groups. High broad sense and narrow sense heritability were suggested for several characters. General combing ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) influenced significantly in some observed traits, except leaves width, stem diameter and fruit stalk length. Genotype C5 was selected parent with best GCA in some observed traits and recommended to be developed subsequently as open-pollinated variety. Those were hybrids that were potential to be further tested, i.e. C2×C19, C5×C2, C5×C19, C19×C2, C19×C5, C2×C120, C5×C111, C5×C120, C19×C111, C19×C120, C111×C5, C120×C5, C159×C5, C2×C159, C120×C19, C111×C120, C159×C120, C111×C159, C120×C159 and C159×C111.
- MT - Agriculture