Study of Malay Landscape Characteristics in the Landscape of Pekanbaru City, Riau
Artha, Muhammad Arthum
HS Arifin, Nurhayati
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Pekanbaru is the capital of Riau Province, Sumatra Island. Pekanbaru has Malay culture that has embedded in people’s daily life. Western culture with its values has affected Malay cultural values. It makes the Malay cultural values decline and fade. The next generation surely will leave it if there is no effort to preserve it (Suwardi 1991). One of the Riau Province and Pekanbaru government visions is to be the central of Malay culture in South East Asia in 2020 (PKP-2012). To realize the vision, Pekanbaru as the major idealism in measuring and assessing the Malay culture can be used as references to the development of Malay culture in South East Asian region through the identity of Malay landscape. In general, the study on characteristics of Pekanbaru leads to aspects of the scientific field of architecture at the micro scale. Besides, the study which is related to the urban landcape macro-scale is still limited. One of the Pekanbaru characteristics that seems interesting to be researched is Pekanbaru Malay landscape. This study aims to assess the development of the Malay landscape characteristic, identifying the existing elements of Malay landscpe character and analyzing the priority elements forming the Malay landscape character in Pekanbaru and arranging recommendation of main elements forming Malay landscape character in Pekanbaru. This study used qualitative research method. It is done by collecting primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained through a process of in-depth interviewing technigues to gather information directly from key informant related to Pekanbaru development history and Malay culture and observed to determine circumstances and existence of the elements forming the Malay landscape character in Pekanbaru. Secondary data was obtained through literature reviews related to reserach topic. Decision making on problem of determining priority of components forming Malay landscape characeristics in Pekanbaru used AHP (analytical Hierarchy Process). The components were arranged in a hierarchy consisting of four levels. The first level which became the main goal of this study is forming Malay landscape characteristics. The second level is major component forming Malay landscape characteristics. The third level is a variable component forming Malay landscape. The fourth level is an alternative decision action that needs to be done to the forming components of Malay landscape characteristics. The result of this study indicated that the most powerful period landscape characteristic was in Senapelan. Senapelan was the central of Siak Kingdom. Senapelan turned to Negeri Pekanbaru province from ten provinces in Siak Kingdom. During that periode , there were formed elements of Palace, The Assembly Hall, Mosques, Pekan or Markets, Ports, and Settlements located along the rivers. Nowadays, the existence, function, and physical character forming Malay landscape elements can still be found. Forming element was in the form Ports, Markets, Pekanbaru Great Mosque, the Marhum Pekan Cemetery Complex, Royal House (Tuan Qadi), houses that characterize Malay Architecture, and Senapelan Cemetery Complex. Based on analysis of priority elements forming Malay landscape characteristics in Pekanbaru showed that the main forming component was 0.369 (36.9 %) of historical area. Selected historical area component became a top priority for the region store information on past human activity and contained the remains of the most powerful physical form represents Malay landscape. Alternative decision was top priority is establishment of weighting value of 0.0496 (49.6 %). High weight values in the form of decision alternatives is “determination”. It was compared with other alternatives because the current historic area in the Port Senapelan has not had status as a heritage. It is necessary to maintain the area as a heritage area which is supported through the legal aspect in rules made by government. It is used as effort towards preservation .For management purposes of protection, it is necessary to make part of zone in according with the UU 11 Tahun 2010 on the Cultural Heritage. It is divided into three zones, core zone, opponent zone and developing zone . The protection of core zone intended as an effort to prevent and cope with these elements of damage, destruction, or obliteration which is done by way of restoration. In an effort to harness all potetial area , it s needed to make an area developing concept as historical attraction area by using the concept of “travel while learning”. The style of building, decoration, and colour of elements which contained in the historical district of port Senapelan can be applied by replica in Pekanbaru urban design . It was done to develop the whole area in Pekanbaru.
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