The c apability of Wood Rot Fungus JPA Isolate and Trichoderma sp. S2-2 in Degradation of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches to Produce Cellulose.
Sudirman, Lisdar I
Dharmaputra, Okky Setyawati
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Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) are a lignocellulosic waste which commonly found in oil palm refining process. OPEFB abundant waste can be used to get the biorefinary products that have added value. The objectives of this study was to determine the capability of wood-rot fungus JPA isolate and Trichoderma in degradation of OPEFB and to determine the growth of the two fungal isolates on OPEFB that has been composted. The experiment consisted of two topics. The first topic consisted of four treatments of inoculations, i.e. the substrate was inoculated with JPA isolate (JPA); with Trichoderma sp. S2-2 (T); and with both isolates (JPA + T). On the 4th treatment, the substrate was inoculated with JPA isolate. After 4 weeks of incubation, the substrate was inoculated with Trichoderma sp. S2-2 [(JPA) + T]. As control, OPEFB was not inoculated with either JPA isolate or Trichoderma sp. S2-2. On second topic, 4 piles of OPEFB (40 kg/pile) were inoculated with commercial decomposer. They were then composted for 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks, respectively, under natural conditions. As control, OPEFB was not composted. The degraded OPEFB was inoculated with either JPA isolate or Trichoderma sp. S2-2, it was then incubated for 35 days. The results of the first topic showed, that the substrate inoculated with JPA+T produce the highest decrease of dry weight (20.54%). After degradation, from the lowest to the highest of lignin contents were the smooth part of JPA+T (20.83%); JPA (21.85%); rough part of JPA+T (23.93%); T (24.93%); (JPA)+T (29.15%); and control (30.89%) respectively, while from the lowest up to the highest of cellulose contents were T (31.90%), followed by the rough part of JPA+T (33.77%); smooth part of JPA+T (40.4%); JPA (43.33%); (JPA)+T (45.51%); and control ( The results of the second topic showed, that after degradation using commercial decomposer for control, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks of composting, the lignin contents of OPEFB were 39.64, 27.76, 13.66, 12.41 and 10.68%, respectively, while the cellulose contents were 51.21, 38.60, 27.78, 23.34 and 23.34%, respectively. 51.21%). The lowest to the highest of C/N ratio were smooth part of JPA+T (28.24%); JPA (30.44%); rough part of JPA+T (30.46%); (JPA)+T (30.67%); T (34.76%) and control (49.21%) respectively. JPA isolate colonized OPEFB for 6 weeks of composting and 25 days after incubation, whereas Trichoderma sp. S2-2 colonized OPEFB for 8 weeks of composting and 20 days after incubation. Wood rot fungus JPA isolate and Trichoderma sp. S2-2 have a capability in degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches to obtain cellulose as a raw material to produce value-added products .