Efikasi pemberian biskuit fungsional ikan gabus (Ophiocephalus striatus) terhadap imunitas humoral anak
Sri, Dewi Kartika
Marliyati, Sri Anna
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Snakehead Fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) in the waters of South Kalimantan is a type of fish most commonly found and very popular in the public as a fish consumption. Types of processed snakehead fish is still very limited, and is generally in the form of dried fish, grilled fish, fried fish and local specialties food by the name "ketupat Kandangan". Therefore it is necessary efforts to diversify its processing in order to increase the value added and benefits of snakehead fish. Processing into fish flour is one alternative that is appropriate because it can be used as a supplement or substituent on the processing of various food products in order to increase the nutritional value of the protein, for example, for products of crackers, biscuits, noodles, bakery etc. Snakehead fish is one source of animal protein which is called as a complete protein because it contain of complete essential amino acids and its composition similarly with essential amino acids, and also more digestible and absorbable. Snakehead fish is one of albumin rich source, which can be used as material source of biopharma and material substiuent for human albumin. Dietary protein intake sourced from Snakehead fish can increase nutrition status of children. Additional food such as biscuits with snakehead fish flour supplementation may be an option as a supplementary food for infants/children because the biscuits are better quality than the biscuits in general tend to be high in carbohydrates and fats as well as other less well-balanced contents nutritional. In addition, functional biscuits had high protein (complete amino acids), fortified with minerals Zn and Fe, is very practical in its presentation and accepted by the children. Nutrient content of functional biscuits in 100 g of biscuit were: moisture of 2.7 g, ash of 2.1 g, 13.3 g of protein, fat 24.5 g, carbohydrates 57.3 g, energy of 503 Kcal ; Fe 11.7 mg and Zn 8.8 mg. Nutrient content of functional biscuits supplemented with 15% of snakehead fish flour, fortified with microcapsules of Zn and Fe meet the standards of quality of biscuits (SNI 01-2973-1992). Bioavailability of Zn and Fe in functional biscuits at 50 % RDI were 76.3 % and 41.8 %, respectively and had the digest value of protein of 78.4 %. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of functional biscuits snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) on the immune response of children. This was pre-post, single blind, randomized control trial conducted in twenty eight children aged 4-5 year in Pilar village, sub-district of Semplak, Bogor Regency, West Java. The children were randomly assigned to experimental group which receive biscuit with protein source from snakehead fish flour fortified with zinc and iron and control group which receive biscuit with protein source from milk. Both biscuits had a similar on protein and energy content of 13.3% and 503 kcal, respectively. A 60 g biscuits per day was consumed by the children for 56 days. Results showed that experimental functional biscuits (biscuits sourced snakehead fish protein) had a higher contribution on energy, protein, Zn and Fe than a control biscuits (biscuits sourced milk protein). Functional biscuit contribution to energy was 14.6% RDA, protein was 14.7% RDA, Zn was 53.5% RDA, and Fe was 39.3% RDA. Control biscuit contribution to energy was 9.4% RDA and protein was 4.3% RDA, Zn was 3.3% RDA and Fe was 5.8% RDA. Efficacy of functional biscuits with substitution supplemented with fish flour of 15% and fortified with microcapsulated of Zn and Fe as much as 50% of RDI during 8 weeks intervention can improve micronutrient status (hemoglobin, zinc, ferritin and albumin) as well as humoral immunity (IgG) of the children.
- DT - Human Ecology