Development of candidate of antiphotoaging active ingredients from some indonesian traditional cosmetic plants
Datta, Frans Umbu
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Skin is the largest organ that direct contact to the environment. Sun exposure is one of the environmental factors has adversely affect the health of skin and causes a premature aging. Skin premature aging is caused by irradiation of sun ultraviolet (UV) and is known as a photoaging. The formation of coarsely wrinkle on the skin is one of the photoaging characteristics. The formation of coarsely wrinkles on the skin is caused by the destruction and degeneration of collagen, particularly type I collagen. Destruction and degeneration of type I collagen on photoaging are caused by the exposure to UV radiation. Destruction of type I collagen due to the increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Degeneration of type I collagen is caused by UV-induced degeneration of type I procollagen. The usage of antiphotoaging is one of the ways to prevent photoaging. Prevention of the destruction and degeneration of type I collagen is one of the goals of antiphotoaging treatment. The usage of natural products as active ingredients antiphotoaging is one of the most popular treatments to prevent photoaging. The development of natural products as active ingredients antiphotoaging is an important activity in antiphotoging research area. Indonesia has many natural cosmetic resources, particulary traditional cosmetics plants that prospectively to be developed as an antiphotoaging active ingredient. The main purpose of this research is to determine the potential of virtues antiphotoaging virtues and mechanism of antiphotoaging active ingredient extract candidates from several Indonesian traditional cosmetics plants. This research consisted of three research stages, i.e.: (i) Screening of antiphotoaging active ingredient extract candidates; (ii) Determination of potential of antiphotoaging virtues and action mechanism of antiphotoaging active ingredient extract candidates; (iii) characterization of antiphotoaging active ingredient extract candidates. The first research stage screened antiphotoaging active ingredient extract candidates from several extract of Indonesian traditional cosmetics plants. i.e.: Temu Giring (Curcuma heyneana), Temu Ireng (Curcuma aeruginosa), Temu Putih (Curcuma zedoaria), and Ki Urat (Plantago major). The result of screening of antiphotoaging showed that the Ki Urat extract and Temu Ireng extract inhibited extracellular MMP-1 expression in HaCaT cells that exposed by UV. The antioxidant activity of the extracts is an important role to inhibit MMP-1 formation. The fact showed both extracts had high antioxidant activities at that concentration. The result of the second stage of research showed that the Ki Urat extract inhibited UV induced MMP-1 expression in cultured HaCaT cells. The mean percentage of relative expression of MMP-1 at the treatment of Ki Urat extract (12.07 x 103 pixel) was lower than that of negative control (27.75 x 103 pixel). This facts showed the potential of Ki Urat extract to inhibit the UV-induced MMP-1 formation. The result of this research showed that Ki Urat extract was found to have an activity to prevent UV-induced degeneration of type I procollagen. The mean of expression levels of type I procollagen in Ki Urat (36.70 x 103 pixel) was significantly higher than that of the negative control (7.84 x 103 pixel). The mean of expression levels of type I procollagen in Ki Urat extract was not different from that of the control (32.81 x 103 pixel). This facts showed that the Ki Urat extract inhibited UV-decreased expression levels of type I procollagen in the HDFs cells. The fluorescence intensity at vehicle group and extracts group increased as compered to control (2338.50). The means DCF’s fluorescence intensity of treatment of Temu Ireng extract (6169.75) and treatment of Ki Urat extract (5604.00) were significantly different and lower than that of the vehicle (8049.75). This fact showed that the extracts inhibit UV-induced intracellular ROS production in the HDFs cell or it showed that they had intracellular antioxidant activities. The result of the third research stage showed Temu Ireng extract and Ki Urat extract contained secondary metabolite, i.e.: alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols, and flavonoids. The presence of phenolic compounds in the extracts as antioxidants plays an important role in preventing photoaging. This compound inhibited the formation of MMP-1 and inhibited degeneration of type I procollagen due to UV exposure. The research result showed that the total phenol content of the Temu Ireng extracts (11.33 mg / g GAE) was lower than Ki Urat extract (16.93 mg / g GAE). It caused the intracellular antioxidant activity and the total antioxidant capacity of Temu Ireng extract was lower than those of extract Ki Urat, so the ability of Temu Ireng extract to inhibit the MMP-1 formation and inhibit degeneration type I procollagen was lower than that of Ki Urat extract. This fact reinforces the notion that the ability of phenols in the extracts to overcome the oxidative stress by antioxidant mechanisms, so it prevent photoaging by inhibiting the MMP-1 formation and degeneration of type I procollagen due to UV exposure. The results of this study provided scientific facts about potential of the Ki Urat extract as an antiphotoaging active ingredient to inhibits the MMP-1 formation and the degeneration of type I procollagen due to UV exposure by antioxidant mechanisms that reduce free radicals due to UV exposure.Kulit merupakan organ terbesar yangbersetntuhan langsung dengan lingkungan. Paparan sinar matahari merupakan salah satu faktor lingkungan yangberpengaruh langsung pada kesehatan kulit dan dapat menyebabkan penuaan dini. Penuaan dini pada kulit yang disebabkan oleh paparan sinar ultraviolet (UV) dari matahari dikenal dengan istilah photoaging. Salah satu ciri photoaging adalah dibentuknya kerutan yang dalam sebagai gejala klinis pada kulit. Pembentukan kerutan yang dalam pada kulit disebabkan oleh kerusakan dan degenerasi kolagen, khususnya kolagen tipe I. Kerusajkan dan degenerasi kolagen tipe I pada photoaging disebabkan oleh paparan radiasi UV. kerusakan kolagen tipe I disebabkan oleh peningkatan aktiviats matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). regenerasi kolagen tipe I disebabkan oleh degenerasi prokolagen tipe I akibat paparan UV.
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