Antifertilitas Ekstrak Pegagan (Centella asiatica) dan Reversibilitas Fungsi Reproduksi Pada Tikus (Rattus norvegicus) Jantan
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The Indonesia population growth rate during the past 10 years tend to decrease and nearly reach the ideal rate of one percent of growth per year. This success was supported by family planning program and campaign of using contraception. Unfortunately, almost all contraceptive tools and methods affect women. Various effort needs to be done by promoting men contraception, in order to increase participatory rate of men. Medicinal plants have been used as alternative medicine with an asumption that it perform less side effects, beside other consideration such as easy to find and cheaper than the chemical and commercial medicines. One of the medicinal plants that have been used widely in the community is pegagan (Centella asiatica) that used to treat injuries and improve cognitive function. Pegagan has been reported to have an antifertility properties in male rats. However, the scientific reports on the use of this plant on reproduction purposes are still limited. So that, the purpose of this study is to determine the antifertility effect of pegagan extract and reversibility of reproductive capability in male rats. In the first stage, this experiment was done experimentally with a completely randomized design, consisting of 16 combinations of four treatment doses (0, 50, 150 and 450 mg/BW) and four duration of administration (28, 35, 42 and 49 days). Parameters measured were population of spermatogenic cells, sperm quality and testosterone levels. Results of the experiment showed that the population of late spermatids, sperm concentration, sperm motility and testosterone levels decreased following the treatment, although they were still in a normal range. Results of the experiment also indicated that pegagan extract did not affect the population of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and sperm abnormality. It also showed that pegagan still be able to maintain testosterone levels within the normal range. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the dose of 450 mg/kg BW caused the lowest level of late spermatids and sperm concentration if compared to the other paramaters. Twenty eight days administration of pegagan appears to be most efficient duration of administration than any longer time. Results of the experiment also indicated that treatment doses of 450 mg/kg BW and duration of 28 days is still able to maintain testosterone levels in the normal range. Decrease of testosterone levels is associated with inhibition of late stages of spermatogenesis. Based on these results, follow up experiment was carried out to explore the antifertility effects of pegagan and its reversibility. The study was conducted with a complete randomized design, with 8 treatment of combination of dose-duration (450 mg/kg BW-21 day, 600 mg/kg BW-21 day, 450 mg/kg BW-28 days, and 600 mg/kg BW-28 days) and the cessation length of pegagan (1 day and 12 days). Several parameters consisting of the degree of spermatogenesis and sperm quality of male rats were determined. Results of the experiment showed that the degree of spermatogenesis and sperm quality decreased after administration of pegagan. The decrease of spermatogenesis may be due to apoptosis process. The results also showed that 12 days cessation length of pegagan cause the increase of developmental stage, quality of sperm, except for the treatment of 450 mg/kg BW for 28 days. Further study was conducted to determine fertility of male rats by mating them with various fertile females at the end of treatment. Results of the experiment showed that male rats treated with the doses of 450 mg/kg BW showed mating ability with the female rat and then became pregnant and delivered the litters, except male rats treated with the doses of 600 mg/kg BW. After 12 days of cessation length of pegagan, male rats treated with 600 mg/kg BW demonstrated matting ability and produce the litters. This result showed an indication that rats given the dose of 600 mg/kg BW require the recovery period to restore reproductive capability. This result is not enough to explain the reversibility. Based on the results of these study it is strongly indicated that pegagan has antifertility potential. The developmental stages of spermatogenesis affected by pegagan are late spermatids and spermatozoa. This decrease was associated with the decreased of testosterone levels, although still within the normal range. Similarly, the degree of spermatogenesis decreased following the administration of pegagan extract. However, the fertility of male rats given pegagan extract at a dose of 450 mg/kg BW still be tenable. The female rats produce the litters, while those given a dose of 600 mg/kg BW requires a recovery period to be able to mate and produce the litters. Result of this study can not sufficiently explain the reversibility of the antifertility effects of pegagan. However the fertility of male rats treated with the doses of 600 mg/kg BW recovered after the cessation of treatment. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that there are indication of antifertility potentials after administration of pegagan extract on male rats, but in this study has not obtained maximum antifertility effect. Therefore, further efforts is necessary to identify and purify the active compounds contained in pegagan which affect antifertility. It need future researches to determine the cells that produce testosterone on testiscular interstitial cells and the endocrine cells (LH and FSH) in the anterior hipophyse by imunohistochemistry technic to determine the relevance of the hormonal changes that occur spermatogenesis.
- DT - Veterinary Science