Pengaruh Pemberian Minyak Ikan Lele (Clarias gariepinus) dan Fermentasinya terhadap Profil Lipid dan Penanda Biologis Fungsi Kognitif Monyet Ekor Panjang Betina Usia Tua
Kusharto, Clara M.
Marliyati, Sri Anna
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The cause of cognitive decline and dementia until now is still unknown, but some studies suggest that the results of these conditions can be prevented. Nutrition is one of the factors that might impact on cognition in old age (Kalmijn et al. 2004; Solfrizzi et al. 2005; Panza et al. 2004). Intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol associated with dementia that begins with cognitive decline, while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) shown to protect from cognitive impairment, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was thought to affect thrombosis. Catfish oil (CFO) which is a by product from processing catfish flour and its product development which is fermented catfish oil (FCFO) have fatty acids that may affect cognitive function. But both these oils have not been developed and commercialized. The aim of study was to evaluate the fat composition and physic-chemical of both CFO and FCFO and also to observe the effect of CFO and FCFO on the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and cognitive function in female aged cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). The study of its effect was done by experimental study with complete randomized design. Subjects used in this study was 12 female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with ages range over 10 years and has been ovariectomized from PT. Indo Anilab Bogor. Subjects used in this study was 12 female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with ages range over 10 years and has been ovariectomized from PT. Indo Anilab Bogor. Aged determination was defined by using birth certificate and was assested with teeth arrangement of M3/M3. The other requirements were healthy and not suffering from infectious diseases. Twelve of cynomolgous were divided into 4 groups those were CFO group, FCFO group, and two groups BFT and SBO as a control groups. The groups formation were based on lipid profile evaluation result before beginning of intervention. Each group was given isocalory diet feed containing 0.2% cholesterol and 12% (w/w) of fat content: 3% from soybean oil, while 9% are from different fat sources each with beef tallow (BFT), catfish oil (CFO), fermented catfish oil (FCFO), and soybean oil (SBO). The intervention length was three months. All procedures were approved by the research ethics committee and animal welfare from PT. Bimana Indomedical Bogor on May 11, 2012 with ACUC number of p.03.12_IR. Parameter used in this study included body weight, lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation (MDA levels in LDL), and cognitive biomarkers (amyloid beta levels and tau protein). Body weight measurement and blood sampling performed every 1 month, whereas for lipid peroxidation and biological markers of cognitive taken before and after the intervention. v Result showed that the fatty acid composition in sequence for CFO is MUFA (36%) > PUFA (32%) > SFA (31%), while FCFO is MUFA (43%) > SFA (42%) > PUFA (15%). The process of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria increase the content of stearic acid, arachidonic acid and CLA and decrease the content of linoleic acid and leinolenic acid. Physical characteris-tic and chemical Of CFO and FCFO are almost same. There was significant influence (P<0.05) of intervention feeding of CFO, FCFO, BFT and SBO with body weight of cynomolgous. It seemed there was a tendency of feed consumption with body weight, that if consumption ± 70% body weight is constant relative and if consumption was about 60% to decrease of body weight. Intervention feeding of CFO, FCFO, BFT and SBO were not influenced to the increasing of blood triglyceride and decreasing of cholesterol HDL level (p>0.05), but it was significant influence (p<0.05) to the total cholesterol level, cholesterol LDL level and ratio of LDL/HDL cholesterol. Next examination indicated that intervention of CFO was not significant different with BFT those were similar to increase total cholesterol level and significant different with the SBO intervention which tend to be constant. Beside that intervention of CFO also indicated was not significant different with intervention of FCFO and BFT those were similar to increase the LDL cholesterol level and significant different with the SBO. The significant different in increasing the cholesterol LDL/HDL ratio among the four interventions is only CFO and SBO intervention. It means that CFO intervention tends to raise the level of LDL/HDL ratio, while the SBO intervention tends to be constant. The length of CFO dan BFT intervention affect cholesterol LDL level, cholesterol HDL level, and cholesterol LDL/HDL ratio. Increased cholesterol LDL level and decreased cholesterol HDL significantly after 1 (one) month intervention, while increased LDL/HDL ratio after 2 months intervention. The ratio of LDL/HDL currently used as best predictor of the risk of coronary heart disease (Fernandez 2008) Based on ANOVA test, there was no effect of the intervention on level of MDA in LDL of four intervention CFO,FCFO,BFT and SBO (p>0.05). However it appears that intervention CFO tend cause increased levels of MDA in LDL higher than BFT and FCFO groups. Changes in level of amyloid beta, tau protein, and ratio of tau protein and amyloid beta were not statistically significant in the cynomolgous group four that were fed with CFO,FCFO, BFT, and SBO, despite a trend toward increased levels of amyloid beta and decreased level of the tau protein/amyloid beta ratio were found in the group given with FCFO and CFO. Hence, the giving of dietary fat predominately derived from FCFO is slower to cause aterogenic effect and faster to improve cognitive function based on biological biomaker than CFO. It was presumed that FCFO contains higher MUFA and CLA than CFO.
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