The Empowerment of Creative Economy Craftsmen of Silk Handicraft in Villages in South Sulawesi Province
Asngari, Pang S
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Community empowerment is an effort to improve standard and status of a community stratum that currently within the poverty and backwardness. Creative economy craftsman (silk) is a person who work in the making of silk handicraft by changing the raw material or unfinished goods into valuable goods to fulfil their needs and increase their income. Empowerment is beneficial for the development and utilization of talent and skill of every individual. Many works are designed and built by a group or organization hoping that members of the group or organization can utilize the situation to improve their performance. However, only small proportion of their ability that leads to desperateness. Empowerment can overcome traditional obstacles by supporting economy creative craftsmen who face different situation from the past; therefore, allow them to have improvement in relation to their attitude in livelihood. Empowerment gives opportunity to everyone to obtain and receive additional skills and responsibilities. Empowerment process needs time because a different skill and motivation. Therefore, integrative study is needed to gain information about things that underlie the empowerment of creative economy craftsmen. The research is conducted in Wajo and Bulukumba Regencies in South Sulawesi Province, which is area of creative economy business development. The research is conducted to all creative economy craftsmen as the prominent actor of creative economy. Reasons in selecting Wajo and Bulukumba Regencies as the research location are: (1) the areas have product development, (2) they absorb employment, (3) they produce product from all creative economy business with characteristic of Bugis and Makassar ethics. In general, the research aims to analyze entrepreneurship behavior of silk craftsmen as the prominent actor of creative economy in increasing their income and prosperity. In specific, the research aims to: (1) map the ability level of creative economy craftsmen in securing their business sustainability based on economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions and the behavior of creative economy business in South Sulawesi Province; (2) analyze the determinant factors of business sustainability of creative economy craftsmen as the prominent actors of creative economy in South Sulawesi Province; and (3) design an empowerment model of creative economy craftsmen as the prominent actor of creative economy in South Sulawesi Province. The research is conducted using survey method, literature study and interview. Field survey is conducted to collect primary and secondary data. Survey method is used to collect primary data using field observation and measurement, in-depth interview and FGD. Secondary data is obtained from report documentation of various related institutions. Data collection method used to formulate sustainability frame and sustainability assessment is multidimensional scaling (MDS) method in Rapfish-modified Rap UEK software. In term of the determinant factors of sustainability, prospective analysis is used. Research results show that sustainability frame of creative economy craftsmen business is needed in order to evaluate the business sustainability especially in facing social, economic, environmental and institutional developments and entrepreneurship behavior. General frame of the sustainability of creative economy business in this research is built based on economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions and entrepreneurship behavior. Rap-UEK simulation to find out about the sustainability grade of creative economy craftsmen business in South Sulawesi Province shows less sustainability value of 48.97%. Based on leverage factors analysis in Rap-UEK there are leverage factors high light according to leverage analysis result. In economic dimension, the leverage factors are: (1) one place sale, (2) less product development, and (3) less promotion on UEK product. In social dimension, it is showed that UEK (1) is a hereditary business, (2) received less socialization from the government, (3) limited training from the government and (4) less training from the organization. In environmental dimensions, the factors are: (1) knowledge on the impact of coloration, (2) the impact of raw material supply, (3) less training on environment, and (4) less knowledge on environmental preservation. In term of institutional dimension the leverage factors are: (1) pricing within the institution, (2) ordering the mechanism of regulation or rule of the game in social institutions, and (3) vertical relationship. Whereas, for entrepreneurship behavior dimension the leverage factors are: (1) understanding on how to utilize opportunity of UEK, (2) understanding on how to make new silk motif, and (3) identifying UEK thoroughly. Prospective analysis result shows that from 17 attributes influencing business sustainability, there are 10 key factors: capital sources, one place sale, home telephone, product of creative economy business, product development, rule of the game in the institutions, pricing within the institutions, governmental training, governmental socialization, and vertical relationship. Based on result of identification on the need of policy maker, there are five key factors that can be used as strategy for business sustainability of creative economy craftsmen, which are business field, increase in export, employment absorption, coordination with other institutions and increase in product. Description on each dominant factor based on composite analysis between sustainability analysis (influence among factors) and need analysis (the desired change) is as follow: there are six determinant factors of business sustainability of creative economy craftsmen, which are one place sale, institutional coordination, capital sources, increase in creative economy business product, business field, and product development. The empowerment strategy and model conducted on economy creative craftsmen is improving the sustainability through the dominant factors of one place sale, coordination with governmental institutions, capital sources, increase in UEK product, product development and business expansion and through the determinant factors of business sustainability by improvement on economic, social, environmental, and institutional dimensions and entrepreneurship behavior. Empowerment model can give reinforcement mechanism in organizational institution of creative economy craftsmen sustained by supporting elements of regional or local government, non-governmental organization (financial institutions), firms, higher education (universities), non-governmental organization, research organizations and cooperative.
- DT - Human Ecology