Kajian Peningkatan Kualitas Air Sungai Ciujung Berdasarkan Parameter Senyawa AOX (Adsorbable Organic Halides) dengan Model WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) dan Model Dinamis
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Ciujung River was the largest river in Banten Province with watershed area 1,935 km2 and 147 km length. The upstream of Ciujung River was located in Lebak Regency and the downstream was in Serang Regency. The river plays important role for Serang Regency for domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. At present, Ciujung River has become a national issue as a river that was polluted, decreased in discharge, river siltation due to the critical land in the upstream and industrial activity in the downstream that influenced the society’s health and social economy, especially in the downstream region.The river class and total maximum dayli loads (TMDLs) has not been determined by the national and regional government, so that the water river quality of Ciujung River was defined based on the Government Regulation No. 82/2001 concerning the management of water quality and water pollution control. However, adsorbable organic halides (AOX) parameter was not included in the regulation. AOX compound was a specific pollutant that toxic, hydrophobic, carcinogenic, persistent, and could be bio accumulated in fish body so it would pose a risk to human health. If there was no effort in controlling the pollution, it could be sustained and influenced the river function. The main objective of this research was to develop a model in controlling pollution in Ciujung River with three steps, i.e. (1) analyzing AOX compound in exist condition of Ciujung River, (2) determining the priority of pollution load controlling strategy in Ciujung River, and (3) formulating a model of pollution control in Ciujung River. The research was done by field survey, sample analysis directly in field and laboratory, questionnaire distribution, and in-depth interview with the expert. Water quality was analyzed with pollution index method; TMDLs was determined with water quality analysis simulation program (WASP). Priority of pollution load controlling strategy was analyzed with analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method. Model of Ciujung River water pollution control was developed with system approach using Powersim Studio 2005. The result showed that in existing condition, most parameter in several locations did not meet the criteria of class II water quality standard. DO, pH and nitrate content met the standard in all location, whereas BOD, COD, nitrite, phenol and AOX compound did not meet the standard.Status of Ciujung river water quality according to pollution index value without AOX compound, was in status of light to moderate polluted (IP 0.32 – 7.10). Whereas by considering the AOX parameter, Ciujung River was in status of light to severe polluted (IP 1.80 – 14.04). Potential pollution load that went into Ciujung River was come from non-point source, i.e. domestic, livestock, and agricultural waste and point source, i.e industry. The increase of pollution load potential that went into Ciujung River caused decrease of TMDLs. WASP simulation result showed that in minimum reliable discharge (1.9 m3/second), Ciujung River did not have TMDLs for class II river based on BOD (-3,470 kg/day) and AOX compound (-5 kg/day). The analysis result of priority strategy in controlling pollution in Ciujung River using AHP showed that three alternatives priorities need to be done to control the pollution in Ciujung River were tightening of waste dispose license into the river (eigen value 0.309), maintain the quality of waste water and river water (eigen value 0.228), and determine the river class and pollution load capacity (eigen value 0.195). Scenario applied for controlling the Ciujung River pollution were efforts to reduce pollutant load by (1) monitoring the water quality, (2) determining class and river TMDLs, and (3) applying policy to tightening disposal and industrial waste quota license and applying tax for industrial waste. According to those, three scenarios was made, (1) pessimist scenario, i.e. by permitting the exist condition, (2) moderate scenario, i.e. by monitoring water river quality and industrial waste water periodically, determining river class and pollution load capacity, and collating and disseminating rules about the license of waste disposal, industrial waste water that was permitted to be thrown into the river and waste tax application and (3) optimist scenario, i.e. by monitoring water river quality and industrial waste water periodically, determining river class and TMDLs, and implementing all rules above waste disposal license, industrial waste water quota that was permitted to be thrown into the river and application of waste tax. The result of ecology sub model simulation showed that pessimist scenario affected the increase of pollutant concentration and decrease of TMDLs. In pessimist scenario, BOD in the end of simulation year was 180.1 mg/L. AOX compound concentration was 0.1394 mg/L. Cr metal concentration was 1.1559 mg/L. The application of moderate scenario, decrease of BOD 46.18%, COD 27.6%, AOX compound concentration 2.87% and Cr concentration 44.95%. The application of optimist scenario compared to pessimist scenario, showed the decrease of BOD 69.79%, COD 41.7%, AOX compound concentration 4.16% and Cr concentration 67.91%. Social sub model simulation (AOX compound impact sub model to health) showed that when there was no effort to control the AOX compound pollution (pessimist scenario) in Ciujung River then the compound was predicted to be bio accumulated inside fish. In the end of simulation year (2020), the predicted concentration of the compounds contained in fish body for 2,3,7,8-TCDD was 0.6338 g/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDF was 0.5071 g/kg, PCP was 0.0326 g/kg and CH3Cl was 5.373x10-4 g/kg. So, AOX compound predicted went into human body which consumed the fish in dry season was 0.0312 g/day for 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 0.0233 g/ day for 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 0.0016 g/ day for PCP and 2.65x10-5 g/ day for CH3Cl. The AOX content in human body has exceeded TDI value (tolerable daily intake). The application of moderate scenario, showed that a decrease of AOX compound content was predicted to contain in body fish for 2,3,7,8-TCDD was 11.11% and 11.14% could entering human body, 2,3,7,8-TCDF compound in fish was 11.12% and in human body 11.12%, PCP compound in fish was 11.12% and in human body 11.12%, and CH3Cl in fish was 11.11% and in human body was 11.11%. The application of optimist scenario, showed a decrease of AOX compound content was predicted to contain in body fish for 2,3,7,8-TCDD 16.79% and 16.80% could entering human body, 2,3,7,8-TCDF compound in fish 16.80% and in human body 16.80%, PCP compound in fish 16.79% and in human body 16.79%, and CH3Cl in fish 16.79% and in human body 16.79%. According to the result of model simulation, it was known that the application of moderate and optimist scenario could increase the quality of Ciujung River and decrease AOX compound effects to fish and human with considering social, ecology and economic aspects. However, the scenario application need to be supported with several policies such as (1) tightening the license of waste disposal and quota, (2) water quality monitoring, (3) determination of water class and pollution load capacity, and (4) application of industrial waste tax.