Analisis pendapatan dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi produksi susu di Desa Pandesari Kecamatan Pujon Kabupaten Malang Jawa Timur
Analysis of income and factors affecting milk production in Pandesari Village, Pujon Sub-district, Malang Regency, East Java.
Soeyatno, Rahmah Farahdita
Asmarantaka, Ratna Winandi
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National dairy cattle business has low productivity and fluctuative production. It happened on 2005 until 2011. Dairy cattle business is dominated more than 90 percent inefficient small-scale of people farms with traditional maintenance. The condition shows that farmers also facing the limitations of production, management, and maintenance technology factors. In the process of goods or services production, income will be affected by the cost of resources and business management. Pujon Sub-district as dairy production center in East Java is expected can improve the welfare of farmers through their incomes from dairy cattle business. The purposes of this study are (1) to analyze the agribusiness management on dairy farm, (2) to analyze the factors that influence the milk production of dairy farmers (3) to analyze the income of dairy farm business. The used primary data was obtained by direct observation and questioner based interview, while the secondary data was obtained from government authorities and relevant institutions, literature, and related researches. The data was collected from September 2012 until January 2013 and was analyzed using descriptive analysis to examine the agribusiness management, income analysis using R/C ratio, and production function analysis using Cobb Douglas. The analysis result showed that the management of dairy farm has not been going well. It could be seen from the improperly of sanitation of the cage, untreated cows, late in milk handling that caused the low of milk fat content (< 2.70 percent), the unscheduled feeding, and the lack of SAE (Sinau Andandani Ekonomi) Cooperative role in supporting dairy farm business. Meanwhile, estimated model with Cobb Douglas production function showed the value of the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.865. It showed that 86.50 percent of milk production could be explained simultaneously by input of feed concentrates, forages, labors, and gamblong feed (cassava dregs). The elasticity of each production factors was the coefficient degree of Cobb Douglas function. The elasticity of concentrates was 0.30, forages elasticity was 0.10, labor elasticity was 0.05, and gamblong elasticity was 0.46. The value of returns to scale could be calculated by summing the rank of the coefficient of each independent variable which was 0.91. It showed that milk production was in the condition of constant return to scale, which fit with the assumptions of Cobb Douglas. The average milk production was 12.26 liters per day with the average lactation time was 232.78 days per lactation period. The income consisted of milk selling, calves, heifer, cow manure, and used sacks. Selling price of milk during the year 2012 was stable at Rp 3 150 per liters, that the total income of farmers (with averagely business of 2.86 lactated cows) was at p 31 021 407.92, while the dairy cattle revenues was Rp 9 028 781.45. Cash R/C value was 1.54 which could be interpreted that every Rp 100 of cash cost used for business activities would give Rp 154 as income. The R/C value of total cost was 1.41, which could be interpreted that every Rp 100 of total cost used for business activities would give Rp 141 as income. From the terms of management and production, dairy farmers in Pujon Sub-district of Malang Regency should feed the cows on time and maintain the composition of the feed since concentrates, forages, and gamblong are the significant input factors. The prices of consentrates and forages are high, that every additional feed amount would increase the production cost as well, while gamblong feed is the most significantly affecting the milk production with the highest elasticity value of 0.46 percent. The use of gamblong feed did not cause the production cost increased, because of its low price and suitable as supplementary concentrate feed supplement for cattle. In addition, SAE Pujon Cooperative should increase the incentives of milk prices that will increase the farmers’ income. From the management side, SAE Pujon Cooperative should improve the performance of coaching to farmers especially in technical maintenance of dairy cows effectively, such as counseling or periodic training, in order to produce high quality milk with more fat content.
- MT - Economic and Management