Analisis komparasi saluran pasar tradisional dan modern pada komoditas sayuran di Kecamatan Pangalengan Kabupaten Bandung
Aliyatillah, Fitriyani Mir`ah
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Vegetable is one of the important horticultural commodities that potential to be developed because it has a high market demand both from within and outside the country. Although the trade balance value was still negative, the export trend of vegetable from 2005 to 2010 is positive 10 percent. Modern market developments such as the export and food service industries such as restaurants offer higher returns to farmers. But the Modern market has the requirement related to quantity and consistency of vegetable quality. Therefore, it is important to analyze marketing of vegetable in Modern market. Pangalengan is the vegetable production centers in West Java that contribute quite big in the National vegetable production. In addition, the district is also targeted to make contribution to increase the export of vegetable, especially to Singapore. Along with the development of a Modern market, farmers started supplying to the Modern market that enforces the selling price fixed based on agreements and offer a higher selling price than traditional markets. Because of fluctuating prices, traditional market trigger unintegrated market price at the level of farmers and retailers. The aims of this research are to: (1) analyze the marketing aktivities of vegetables in Pangalengan; (2) analyze the efficiency of the Modern and traditional market channels of vegetables in Pangalengan; and (3) analyze the impact of Modern market channels against farmers and traditional market channels. Research location determined purposively in three villages in the District of Pangalengan because of the highest vegetables productivity i.e. Margamekar Village, Pangalengan Village and Margamukti Village. Vegetables in this research are potato, tomato, cabbage and carrot. Data analysis was done qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative analysis was conducted to find out the vegetable market institutions, marketing functions, marketing channels, and the impact of modern market channels to farmers and traditional market channels. Microsoft Excel and Eviews software are used to analyze price integration of vegetables on traditional market with ordinary least square (OLS) model that adapted from Ravallion Model. The results showed that the marketing institutions of vegetables in traditional market channels are traders I, traders II, wholesale and retailers. While for marketing institutions on the modern market are of traders III, exporters, and restaurant. The marketing function that carried out by marketing institutions who supply vegetables to traditional market generally consists of: (1) facilities functions such as sortation, risk, cost, and market information; (2) physical functions in the form of transportation and storage; and (3) exchange functions such as sales and purchase. While in the modern market channels, there is an additional marketing function facility at the level of farmer i.e grading activities. The modern market channels of potato, tomato, and cabbage are more efficient than the traditional market channels. It can be seen from marketing margin, farmer's share, and market integration between farmers and retailers. Analysis of the market integration indicates that generally vegetables in traditional markets were unintegrated. This condition happened because the information that comes to market farmers is slower than intermediary traders. As for the commodity tomato, integrated strong because information to farmers more open and distributed quickly. The impact of Modern market channels to traditional market channels are declining trading volume of vegetables, adding of marketing functions, and shortening marketing channels. The impact of Modern market channels are increasing the productivity of the vegetables, increased profits, and increasing the quality of the vegetables.
- MT - Economic and Management