Utilization of Cashew Nut Shell as Organic Fertilizer and Fungicide.
Djoefrie, H M H Bintoro
MetadataShow full item record
Cashew nut shells have not been fully utilized untill now and most of them are still in a form of wastes. The data of cashew nut production in 2010 showed that there were 66.036.54 tons of cashew nut shell wastes. That amount of cashew nut shell wastes would be very potential if they were composted into organic fertilizers and fungisides. Cashew nut shell wastes are organic matter containing macro elements such as N (0.84%), P (0.21%), K (0.70%), Ca (0.13%) and Mg (0.24%), that are useful for plants. Cashew nut shell contains high lignoselulose that is difficult to hydrolyze so that it will take a very long time to become organic fertilizer through natural composting. This can cause comulation of wastes that have negative effect to the environment. Therefore, treatments using proper composting techniques such as utilizing bioactivator (Trichoderma spp. and selulotic bacteria) and chopping cashew nut shell, are needed to solve the problem. Both of treatments are expected to accelerate decomposition and produce good quality compost that can be applied to the plant as organic fertilizer and fungicide. The research was conducted at IPB Teaching Farm, Darmaga Bogor from September 2012 to August 2013. The aim of this research was to produce good quality of organic fertilizer and fungicide from utilizing cashew nut shell wastes with microbial inoculation method (Trichoderma spp. and selulotic bacteria) as well as chopping cashew nut shell. This research consisted of four interrelated experiments with the following specific purposes: firstly, to analyse the composting rate of cashew nut shell wastes resulted by chopping cashew nut shell and using bioactivator (Trichoderma spp. and selulotic bacteria); secondly, to analyse the effect of cashew nut shell compost on nutrient uptake and growth of cashew and cocoa seedlings; and finally, to analyse the effectiveness of cashew nut shell compost formulas which were enriched with Trichoderma spp. to cashew seedling resistance against the pathogen attack, Rigidoporus lignosus, the cause of white root fungus (JAP) disease. The addition of bioactivator (Trichoderma spp. and selulotic bacteria) and enomeration of cashew nut shell can significantly increase the composting rate of cashew nut shell waste as raw material for organic fertilizer and it can improve the quality of cashew nut shell compost formulas suitable with the compost criteria set by SNI 19-7030-2004 and technical requirement standarts of organic fertilizers (C/N: 24.42%, N: 1.71%, P: 0.17%, K: 0.96%, pH: 7.13). The treatments of cashew nut shell compost gave better effect on the growth and nutrient uptake of cashew and cacao seedlings than the control (top soil). Cashew nut shell compost formula in 50 g polybag-1 can substitute 100 g polybag-1 goat manure to increase the growth od cashew seedlings to be ready to transplant to the field. The increase of doses of cashew nut shell compost formula to 100 g polybag-1 can enhance the growth of cocoa seedlings untill they are ready to transplant in the field. Cashew nut shell compost formula can improve the balance of nutrients in the soil so that it enhances the growth and vigor of cashew and cacao seedlings. The experiment results on the effectiveness of cashew nut shell compost formulas as organic fertilizers and pesticides showed that both the cashew nut shell compost formulas in 50 g polybag-1 and 100 g polybag-1 which were enriched with Trichoderma spp. gave significant influence to increase resistance against pathogen attack, Ridigoporus lignosus, the cause of white root fungus (JAP) disease and they were able to increase cashew seedling growth better than the control (top soil) because they can improve cashew seedling vigor during the nursery before being transplanted to the field. Application of cashew nut shell compost formulas are expected to reduce the land resource degradation as well as pollutant emissions, then to improve the recycled elements utilization of the farming system (zero waste), and finally to protect the environment and the welfare of local community life.
- MT - Agriculture