Pengaruh jiwa kewirausahaan terhadap kinerja usaha wirausaha wanita pada industri pangan rumahan di Bogor
The effects of entrepreneurships spirit on business performance of women entrepreneurs on the cottage food industry in Bogor
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One of the industry many cultivated by women entrepreneurs in Indonesia is a cottage industry. The majority of categories of business carried on by women entrepreneurs in Bogor is business related with food. Many factors influence why business performances which is run by women entrepreneurs are not experiencing progress. For example, 1). women entrepreneurs have a variety of motivations to cultivate his efforts, but the fact remains the majority of business is not managed properly, 2). women entrepreneurs do not calculate risk, 3). the lack of training and education, and 4). the absence of government policies to improve business performance and the number of women entrepreneurs agribusiness based in the national scope. There is the objectives of this study are 1). to analyze effects of personal characteristics and external-internal environments on entrepreneurships spirit of women entrepreneurs on the cottage food industry in Bogor and 2). to analyze effects of entrepreneurships spirit, personal characteristics, and externalinternal environments on business performance of women entrepreneurs on the cottage food industry in Bogor. This research actioned in Bogor. Bogor district elections because Bogor as the region or territory where the population has the greatest own business in August 2012 in West Java, in the amount of 359 193 people. Methode for take sample is purposive sampling. On this research used 100 women entrepreneurs, where 47 peoples from Bogor City origin and 53 peoples from Bogor District origin. The analysis used the descriptive and quantitative analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Processing quantitative data using LISREL 8.3. In the analysis by using the SEM results showed that the personal characteristics positive effectively and significantly on entrepreneurial spirit. This suggests that an increase in education, training, age, business experience, particular ethnic origin, and family background to be entrepreneurs will increase their entrepreneurial spirit. Internal environment positive effectively and significantly on entrepreneurial spirit woman entrepreneurs. Based on discussions with the respondents that good marketing activities, such as promotion and distribution channels, the use of capital (both equity and loans), the easier of obtaining raw materials, and others will motivate and make women entrepreneurs to be more creative. Therefore, strengthening the internal management of the effort required for provide motivation or creativity for entrepreneurial woman to be more advanced and still choose entrepreneurship as woman entrepreneurs work. External environment negative effectively and significantly on entrepreneurial spirit. One of example is the policy of the government and the role of institutions (such as banks) that there is now less motivated to help women entrepreneurs or innovating to expand its business. This is due to the current policy less supportive of the activities carried out by woman entrepreneurs for entrepreneurship and borrowed on the mortgage and the bank charged a high interest rate loan . The other result showed that the business performance of women entrepreneurs on the cottage food industry in Bogor only influenced by personal characteristics. While entrepreneurship, external business environment, and internal business environment does not significantly influence the performance of the business. This is because women entrepreneurs in Bogor have been relying on the capabilities inherent in their personal, such as education, training, age, work experience (business), ethnic origin, and family background with training who has the most value of the relationship, that is 0.66. Policy of the present government is not helping businesses carried on by women entrepreneurs to be better, the role of financial institutions (eg. banks) also does not helped increasing their business because of the continuing collateral and high interest rates, marketing activities are capital constrained, not using capital loans to banks due to the constraints on the collateral and high interest rates, still using traditional tools or machines, and other issues, so that women entrepreneurs tend to rely only on her own abilities. Therefore, training is needed to improve her skills in managing their business.
- MT - Economic and Management