Local economic system of wajo community (case study on weavers at Wajo Regency South Sulawesi Province)
Sisten ekonomi lokal masyarakat wajo (studi kasus pada penenun di Kabupaten Wajo Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan)
Dharmawan, Arya Hadi
Damanhuri, Didin S
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Weaving activity in Bugis Wajo Community has been in the area since thirteen century. World trade activity, marked with the introduction of capitalism economic and market economic systems into the community economic system, has influenced weaving community’s life order. The change in the community’s life is also influenced by development on weaving technology with the introduction of improved handlooms (Alat Tenun Bukan Mesin/ATBM) in 1950. This condition has divided the weavers into three groups, gedogan (primitive looms) weaver, ATBM weaver, and weaving entrepreneur. These three groups have different action in social and economic lives. These symptoms are the basic for author to study the Local Economic System (sistem ekonomi lokal/SEL) developed by weavers in Bugis-Wajo Community South Sulawesi Province. The research aims to examine and analyze: (1) local wisdom-based economic system of weavers in Wajo Regency (2) economic-moral ethic shaping the local economic system under the influence of market economic (3) economic action embeddednes of weavers in personal and social structure networks. Theoretical approaches used to understand realities on field are embeddedness theory and network theory from Granovetter (1985; 1973; 1992). Qualitative approach is used as methodological tool to uncover and analyze data using constructivist paradigm (Guba and Lincoln, 2000). Data collection is conducted with in-depth interview and observation. Data analysis is conducted through processes of data reduction, data presentation and conclusion (Miles and Huberman, 1994). To find out about the validity of data, the study uses four ways, credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Research results show that local wisdom in Bugis weaving tradition is exist in the function and meaning of woven cloth as clothing, gift, status symbol and as part of goods for customary ceremonies. Local wisdom is also exist in the weaving activity itself such as a myth about Walida as a weapon for women having meaning as a protection system for women’s status. A myth on menganai (massau), which is an activity to stretch the yarn to make a warp threads for weaving, having a meaning of discipline and carefulness. The research proposes a theoretical formulation on “mix rationality” action. Mix rationality action is an action presenting formal rational action along with moral rational action in one real action. However, this action is not paradox in nature, instead, it is unite and compromise action. Several concrete proofs are proposed to support the theoretical argument, as follow: 5. Gedogan (primitive looms) weavers tend to set out cultural values in producing woven clothes; however, they also gain economic advantage from woven clothes they produced. 6. Capital collection conducted by weaving entrepreneurs is not merely toward world’s matter (business development), but the capital is also used to help others in social-religious activities. 7. Weaving entrepreneurs who have stronger economic power compare to two other weaver groups do not shut down and exploit weaker weavers, instead, they build partnership with ATBM and gedogan weavers. The partnership involves solidarity (moral) and brings economic advantages to each party. 8. The presence of patron (entrepreneurs and ATMB weavers) gives social guarantee, jobs and salary to clients (labors), in which they can work as long as they wanted to; however, patron also receives economic advantage from the work itself (woven clothes produced by client (weaving labors)). Compare to economic systems in various countries, Local Economic System existed in Bugis-Wajo weaver community is similar to economic system in Japan. Business people in SEL of Wajo community are family-based private corporate. This symptom is similar to Japan, in which the business people depend on family base corporate. Weaver entrepreneurs (patron) give social and jobs guarantee based on time and opportunity to weaving labors (client). This patron-client relationship is marked with loyalty. The entrepreneurs compete in local level, but they work together outside their community. In Japan, on the contrary, loyalty to the country is above everything, cooperation – competition, companies are competing within the country but they work together outside the country. The moral bases of business people are helping each other (sibali perri dan sibali reso), competition, siri (embarrassment) and pesse (empathy) embedding in unique, local patronage relationship, honesty (lempu), capital formation is not directed to play more role in economic activity, but it is also allocated for social and religious activities. Success, according to weavers, is “resopa natinulu, natemmangingngi, namalomo naletei pammese dewatae“ (only with hard work, perseverance and not easily to give up, God will give His bless).
- DT - Human Ecology