Re-desain konservasi pesut mahakam (Orcaella brevirostris Gray, 1866) berbasis perubahan sebaran di Sungai Mahakam, Kalimantan Timur
Re-Design of mahakam irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella Brevirostris Gray, 1866) conservation based on distributional changes in Mahakam River, East Kalimantan
Noor, Ivan Yusfi
Kartono, Agus Priyono
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The intensive bio-ecological research on the Mahakam dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris Gray,1866) from 1997 to 2004 revealed that there were two core habitats/core areas with high dolphin densities in the Mahakam River i.e. the MuaraPahu-Penyinggahan area and Pela-Muara Kaman area. Since 2007, there have been unusual occurrences within the distribution of the Mahakam dolphins. The core habitat of Muara Pahu-Penyinggahan, which was previously known to support a large population of Mahakam dolphins has apparently been left. The changes in distribution were also detected in 2010 when the population monitoring was conducted and no individuals were found in the Muara Pahu-Penyinggahan core habitat . The Mahakam dolphins are now more concentrated in the area of Muara Muntai and in their other core habitat, Pela-Muara Kaman. This research aimed to reveal whether the changes in distribution were persistent and to respond to this phenomenon by improving the conservation design. To predict the persistency of these changes population dynamics, habitat and socio-political environmentv(policies) were studied and formed the research goal.. Thus, the research objectives of this dissertation are as follows: 1) predicting the survival of the Mahakam dolphin population for a period of100 years, 2) analyzing the characteristics of the Mahakam dolphin habitats; 3) evaluating the effectiveness of coordination and consistency of the Mahakam dolphin conservation policies; and 4) perfecting the design of dolphin conservation to accommodate the current situation of the population, the Mahakam dolphin habitat and socio-political environment that support the conservation efforts. The research on the population of Mahakam dolphins in 2012 revealed that the individual number of Mahakam dolphins, the number of births, and the number deaths were as many as 92 individuals, 5 individuals, and6 individuals, respectively. This research also demonstrated that changes in the distribution of dolphins had occurred inMahakam River. The Mahakam dolphins do no longer live in their core habitat of PenyinggahanMuaraPahu. Currently, the dolphin habitat is concentrated in the core habitat of Pela-Muara Kaman. The changes in the distribution indicate that further shrinkage in the habitat of Mahakam dolphins has occurred Mahakam River. As a result of this, an analysis on the survival of the Mahakam dolphin population was conducted. The results of the analysis predict that the life chances of the Mahakam dolphin population in the next one hundred years are less encouraging as the number of individuals will continue to diminish. The only scenario that predicts a stable dolphin population in one hundred years is when the mortality rate of dolphins is reduced to two individuals per year with the conditions that there is no further shrinkage of habitat, which will result in the reduction of its carrying capacity, and the birth rate is maintained at five individuals per year. vii Networks for coordination for dolphin conservation, which includes 16 organizations have not been effective. There has been a lack of coordination in most networks especially related to organizations/actors included in groups (factions) that work in WestKutai Regency. The lack of coordination started from the time when the dolphins moved away from their conservation area and habitat in Muara Pahu. There has been no coordination process to respond to and anticipate the reduced dolphin occurrence in Muara Pahu; Therefore, this lack of coordination has a significant contribution to the phenomenon of changes in the distribution of Mahakam dolphins. The conservation network of Mahakam dolphins is structurally divided into three parts. These sections are formed by the jurisdiction that has caused some fragments in the coordination in the region. There has been no coordination between Kutai Kartanegara and West Kutai for dolphin conservation. Structurally, it can be said that there many potential relationships between actors/organizations inside the Mahakam dolphin coordination networkt have not been materialized. Inconsistencies in the implementation of policies related to dolphin conservation have continued; moreover, policies (regulations or decisions) related to dolphin conservation have not fully been legalized yet besides the area demarcation and thus not yet implemented. Also, there are lacks of communication/coordination and allocation of resources, and the weak law enforcement shows that the policies are not enforced consistently (such as bufferzones). The inconsistencies are due to a lack of attitudes of the people in the organizations/institutions involved in the conservation of Mahakam dolphins. The research also revealed that there is incoherence between Strategies and Action Plan for Conservation of the Mahakam dolphins (SRAK Pesut) and the development plan (RPJM) of the two regencies where the dolphins live. Incoherence arises because there are two different approaches or orientations, and the regional development is not orientated toward conservation but rather toward the 'economic growth'. Inconsistencies in policy implementations related to dolphin conservation have been the major contributing factor to the emergence of problems in dolphin conservation. Both are rooted in lacks of attitudes of the parties responsible for the implementation of these policies. Therefore, the design must include the Mahakam dolphin conservation strategies or plans to change the attitudes of the people involved in the implementation of the policies mentioned above. The research based on changes in the distribution of Mahakam dolphins revealed that the redesign of dolphin conservation must be implemented in order to secure the future survival of the Mahakam dolphin population. The redesign plan should include: 1) the enlargement of protected areas of dolphin habitats in Muara Muntai and its surrounding areas; 2) the building of 'council' which serves to facilitate/mediate interests and manage the influence each actor/stakeholder involved in dolphin conservation; 3) the using of block grants and special fund allocations (DAU and DAK) for dolphin conservation; and 4) the law enforcement and building commitment to consistently implement policies.
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