Hasil biodegradasi lignoselulosa pelepah kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis) oleh phanerochaete chrysosporium sebagai antioksidan dan bahan pakan ternak ruminansia
Biodegradation of lignocelulosic of palm oil frond (Elacis guineensis) by phanerochaete chrysosporium as antioxidant and feedstuff for ruminant
Laconi, Erika B.
Wiryawan, Komang G.
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Lignocellulose is the major component of biomass, it consists of three types of polymers, cellulose, hemicelllose and lignin that are stongly intermeshed and chemically bonded by non-covalent force and by covalent cross linkages. Phanerochaete chrysosporium was widely used to delignify agriculture waste product and improve biodegradation of the substrate as animal feed. This research was conducted to determine the optimum fermentation time of lignin and fermented palm oil frond with Phanerochaete chrysosporium based on the amount of phenolic compounds produce, its antioxidant activity and fiber digestibility in ruminant ration. The first experiment, palm oil frond and lignin (extraction of palm oil frond) were inoculated with P. chrysosporium and incubated at room temperature for 0, 4, 8, 10 and 12 days. For each incubation time, two replications were employed. The phenolic compounds in the supernatant was determined by GC-MS and antioxidant activity test of lignin and palm oil frond fermented products using the method of α,α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The second experiment was conducted to study the interaction between inoculant doses and time of fermentation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium on pH, water activity, fiber components and nutrient. This research was done based on completely randomized design with 2 factor as treatments. The first factor was inoculant doses : 105cfu/ml, 106cfu/ ml, and 107 The third experiment was carried out to increase the use of palm oil fronds as a substitute material for Napier grass through biodegradation process with Phanerochaete chrysosoporium. A randomized completelyblockdesign with four treatments and four replications was used. The treatments were ration 1 (R1) containing 60% Napier grass, ration 2 (R2) containing 40% Napier grass and 20% fermented palm oil frond, ration 3 (R3) containing 20% Napier grass and 40% fermented palm oil frond, ration 4 (R4) containing 60 % fermented palm oil frond. Forty percent concentrate was included in all treatment rations. Parameters measured were in vitro digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber, NDF, and ADF. N-NH3 and TVFA concentration, number of celllulolitic bacteria and protozoa rumen and antioxidant activity in the rumen. cfu/ml, the second factor was length of fermentation : 10, 15, and 20 days. Results showed that longer incubation time (up to day 10) of oil palm frond increased the percentage of inhibition with89.411% inhibitionrate and antioxidant activity was declined at 12 days of incubation. Similar pattern was obtained from fermented lignin with 92.108% inhibition rate for 10 days fermentation.On day 10 fermentation, the main components of phenolic compounds resulted from lignin degradation included 2.6dimethoxy phenol, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, vanillin acid and syringic aldehid and those from fermented oil palm frond included syringic acid, 2.6dimethoxy phenol, hidroxy benzaldehyd, methoxy phenol, and syringic aldehid.Dose of 107cfu/ml inoculant and 10 days time of fermentation were most effectivelyreducing lignin (47.79%), NDF (40.16%), ADF (40.93%), Cellulose (35.69%), Hemicellulose (36.90%), lignin degradation (49.47%), the ratio of cellulose to lignin (1.35). There was no interaction between inoculant doses and time of fermentation on fermented palm oil frond dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and BETN. In vitro experiment showed that incresing level of fermented palm oil frond in the ration reduced (P<0.05) digestibility As the conclusion, of dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, N-NH3, TVFA concentration and number of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria, antioxidant activity but unsignificantly for number of ruminal protozoa. the process oflignocelluloses and lignindegradation of palm oil frond using P.chrysosporiumproducedphenoliccompoundswithantioxidantactivity. The bestdegradationtimefor degradation of lignocelllusic and lignin of palm oil frond for anxtioxidant activity was 10 days with89.411% inhibitionrate for fermented palm oil frond and92.108%forfermented lignin derivedfrom the extraction ofoil palm frond. The best interaction between inoculant doses and time of fermentation was 107cfu/ml inoculants and 10 days incubation time for degradation of lignin and nutrient of fermented palm oil frond.Fermented palm oil frond up to20% could be used as a substitutefor napier grass for ruminant rations
- DT - Animal Science