Qualitative Risk Assessment on the Entering of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) into Pramuka Bird Market Jakarta through Birds.
Penilaian Risiko Kualitatif Pemasukan Virus Avian Influenza (H5N1) ke Pasar Burung Pramuka Jakarta Melalui Unggas
Widyastuti, M.D. Winda
Ilyas, Abdul Zahid
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Traditional market or poultry/live birds market was identified as one of avian influenza (AI) virus spot circulation and very potential to contribute on virus spreading to human. Virus infection at the market could not be defined, but the risk value for virus infection can be estimated due to understand well its likelihood and risk factors need to be managed. Qualitative risk assessment had been known as a way to estimate its risk value. Qualitative risk assessment was conducted at Pramuka Birds Market with the purpose to identify biological risk pathways of the entering of Avian Influenza virus (H5N1) and to estimate its risk level through birds. Risk assessment had been done based on the qualitative risk assessment method published by Organization of Internationale Epizootica (OIE) on 2009. The research was conducted on February-June 2012 with primary and secondary data support. Primary data were collected through field observation and questionnaire for 30 sellers and 30 consumers respondents, and through indepth interview with 17 expert respondents, three middlemans and three intstitutions who concern with bird trading. The result of this study identified that there were six pathways of birds supplies to the market defined as risk biological pathways, which are entering of (1) domestic waterfowl, (2) chickens (kampoong, ornamental, or hobbies/pet chickens, (3) wetland birds, (4) “bridges species” birds, (5) songs birds, and (6) exotic birds. Critical control points had been identified in each birds supplies chain are birds collecting fascilities in catcher or collector level, kiosks or sale fascilities, farms, and entry/exit point. Source of birds for the market were (1) nature (capturing from nature), (2) farm, and (3) other country (through importation process). Generally, all groups of birds were important for bringing risk of AI virus entering to PB Pramuka, but both domestic waterfowl and chickens had identified as very import group to bring the risk. Risk estimation value of entering of AI virus (H5N1) to PB Pramuka Jakarta through six groups of poultry/birds originally come from nature, farm and other country was moderate, with the moderate uncertainty. Moderate risk estimation means that before some commodities to be approved for entering the area, it was mandatory to do assessment on risk management implementation, included on its visibility, effectivity, and mechanism of its verification. Based on risk management point of view, moderate risk estimation needed an efforts for risk management implementation to achieve the appropiate level of protection (ALOP) at “negligible” level. This ALOP’s level determined based on characteristic of AI which were zoonotic and had big risk included death both for animal and human. With AI endemic status for Indonesia, still known that AI virus potentially active for mutation, and the findings of high number on entering or selling birds at the market, implementation of applicable risk management must be applied on the birds supplies chain, from the origin until entry the market. Continous surveillance program, development and implementation of operational standard procedures and diseases early warning system, providing appropiate biosecurity fascilities at the market, and better implementation of biosecurity practices with law enforcement support are recommended as risk management actions that need support from all stakeholders, which are livestock technical services in national and regional level, local government, market management team, and all stakeholder who involved in bird trading form origin level to consumers.
- MT - Veterinary Science