Model pengembangan sistem pemasaran ikan segar di kawasan Maluku Tengah
Development model of fresh fish marketing system in the region of Central Maluku
Apituley, Yolanda Marla Tania Nangkah
Nikijuluw, Victor P.H.
Wiyono, Eko Sri
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Fishery products are perishable and its production centers scattered as well as far from the center of consumption. As seasonal is one of its characteristics while the consumption is relatively stable, it requires special treatment in marketing in order to maintain the quality. The study was carried out in May to October 2011 and located in some selected fresh fish markets in the Region of Central Maluku. The aims of this study were to: (1) analyze the fresh fish marketing, (2) analyze the integration degree of fresh fish markets, (3) develop some strategies and scenarios of fresh fish marketing, and (4) develop a model of fresh fish marketing system in the Region of Central Maluku. Data analysis methods for achieving the aims of this research were: Market Structure-Conduct-Performance analysis, Ravallion model and Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats analysis. The result indicated that market concentration (CR4) was 34.44% and HHI value 556.71, implying that the fresh fish market structure was loose oligopoly and competitive relatively. Five fresh fish marketing channels in this area were (1) Fishermen – Consumers, (2) Fishermen – Retailers – Consumers, (3) Fishermen – Wholesalers – Retailers – Consumers, (4) Fishermen – Wholesalers – Cold Storage – Retailers – Consumers and (5) Fishermen – Wholesalers – Cold Storage – Agents. The all marketing agencies in each channel conducted the functions of selling, risk, costing and market information. The retailers undertook the whole marketing function while others only some. The sellers‟ strategies to attract buyers were reducing the selling price, adding one or two fish to the buyer, disposing the heads and entrails of fish (specifically for Rastrelliger sp), composing the fish on top of the bamboo or pieces of styrofoam (for Selaroides sp and Decapterus sp) and giving cut off services (especially for Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus sp and so on). Fishermen received a larger part in a short marketing channel, so the marketing margin was small. Instead, a long marketing channel could lead to the small revenue of the fishermen. The price of fish was fluctuated over time, however the fish price integrated only between markets of Binaya (District of Central Maluku) and Piru (District of Western Seram). Strategies offered to develop fresh fish marketing system are developing a friendly ecosystem of capture fisheries, developing handling and marketing infrastructures, increasing processors‟ skills of handling and processing, enhancing the cooperation with financial institutions in providing capital and facilitating access of fishermen in order to get credit to expand their business, creating an institution that has mandate to stabilize fisheries products prices, integrating surveillance with local communities and prohibition of fish imports, and tightening the mechanism and function of supervision.
- DT - Fisheries