Strategy of community participation improvement in managing community based marine protected area in Kepulauan Seribu District, DKI Jakarta
Strategi pengembangan partisipasi masyarakat dalam pengelolaan areal perlindungan laut berbasis masyarakat di Kabupaten Administrasi Kepulauan Seribu, DKI Jakarta
Asngari, Pang S.
Kinseng, Rilus A.
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In the last two decades, coral reef ecosystem in Kepulauan Seribu has shown a significant degradation. Coral reef ecosystem condition was considered as poor to fair with average live coral cover of 32,69 % in 2004, while in 2007 it was reduced to 31,33%. Rapid development, population increase and climate change are threatening coral reef resources, while communities continue to seize potentials in using or modifying resources for their livelihood and welfare. Starting in 2004, the local government established Community Based–Marine Protected Area (CB–MPA) in village of Panggang Island, followed by other four villages within the Kepulauan Seribu District. It is expected that co–management approach may encourage community responsibility over activities affecting coral reef ecosystem and natural resources. Sharing of responsibilities and authorities between local fisher community and government should emphasize on the community participation in CB–MPA management. Community participation in CB–MPA management in Kepulauan Seribu is considered unsatisfactory due to interactions of several factors. Given this fact, the objectives of this research are as follows: (1) to analyze fisher community participation in managing CB–MPA in Kepulauan Seribu and (2) to analyze the determinant factors influencing community participation in managing CB–MPA in Kepulauan Seribu and (3) to design strategy of community participation improvement in managing CB–MPA in Kepulauan Seribu. This study showed that level of community participation in performing co–management of CB–MPA in Kepulauan Seribu was low and passive throughout all participation phases. Factors affecting low community participation were indicators related with community organization ability, ranging from managerial, social and technical ability; also related with low community motivation, that are motivation to conserve the resources, raise income and gain credibility acknowledgement. The lack of community organization ability and community motivation was influenced by quality of CB–MPA management where indicators related with compatibility of program conception, program communication approach and intensity of extension agent roles. Managerial ability representing by community organization as CB–MPA facilitators was considered as the most significant indicator affecting the low community participation. Community organization plays important role during the process of co–management, however community organization is duty–bound to build their managerial capacity and independency. Both conditions are prerequisites for upholding role of community organization as primary facilitator in CB–MPA program implementation. The other indicator was social ability, that is ability to elaborate constructive interaction between different community groups and with other stakeholders from different background or institution. The findings showed the managerial and social ability of community organizations in managing CB-MPA were low. Awareness in conserving natural resources was the most significant indicator affecting community motivation to participate in CB–MPA management. This factor related to emotional bond between the community who yield benefits from the environment with existing resources. The second indicator of community motivation with positive influence to community participation was to raise income. Most of community groups in Kepulauan Seribu are dependent on the existence of natural resources as primary support which secure their economic and domestic needs. Maintaining natural capacity of fishery–marine resources will secure the source of livelihood for Kepulauan Seribu community, thus may develop as motive to secure the source of income. Low quality of CB–MPA management served as the prominent factor affecting community organization ability and community motivation in performing their role as primary stakeholder of natural resource management in Kepulauan Seribu. Indicator with highest potential to affect community organization ability and community motivation was compatibility of program conception. Fisher community in Kepulauan Seribu expected the translation of CB–MPA conception into practical information and technical steps of management which secure equal rights of burden and benefit distribution in program implementation. Other indicator is the quality of public communication approach applied by the local government. Additionally, communication approach applied by the government neglects critical information of the local community. Platforms for public communication applied throughout the implementation of CB–MPA Kepulauan Seribu disregard communal disagreement and other issues available in the field. Other indicator showed by services of extension staff in field. Local community recognize that extension agents are the government staff who easiest met in field if they want discussed about their problem. Extension agents have been begining to develop community organization ability aspect as primary program facilitator by conducting training and advocacy. Generally can say that extension agents have given positive contribution although not optimal yet and have many limits. Finally, the effort to improved community participation in co–management practice or CB–MPA implementation in Kepulauan Seribu should be constructed fair resource management concept by ensuring equal–sharing of burden and benefit between different user groups. In practice, strategy of community participation improvement can be done by revitalize CB–MPA regulation, develop two ways communication program, optimize extension service and provide limited–communal right in managing fish shelter productive area as incentives to fisher community who willing to participate in securing CB–MPA in Kepulauan Seribu.
- DT - Human Ecology