Linkage Analysis Between Distribution Of Farmland Tenure And Rural Farmers’ Income (Case Study Of North Aceh District, Aceh Province).
Analisis Keterkaitan Distribusi Penguasaan Lahan Usaha tani Dengan Distribusi Pendapatan Petani Perdesaan( Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Aceh Utara, Propinsi Aceh )
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Pressure to land as a form of resources comes up along with population growth. Populatin growth and social construction formed by nation in the form of penetration of law, economic, politic and culture had raised disparity of land tenure. In agriculture sector, this disparity effected the farm productivity and pattern of relation between land owner and labor. Thus, the level of welfare of relatively landless (gurem) farmer getting worse. The emerge if land conflicts made the farmers’ problems more complicated. Land is the important input of production for farmers. land is the source of income for live sustainability. The square of ownership and tenure of land is one of the main factors determining level of a family’s income as well as farmer household. Limited or even the lack of land ownership and tenure become the beginning of rural poverty that generally happened in Java. The poverty rate in rural is higher than urbanarea. This also shown in North Aceh District which is composed of 80% rural area. In 2010, poverty rate in North Aceh District around 20%, but it tends to decrease from 1 to 1.5% annually. The square of wetland increase every year but the poverty rate in rural area is still high. This research was aimed to: 1) explore and describe farmland institution, 2) analye the influence of land tenure to farm income, 3) analye the linkage between land tenure and distribution of farmers income and poverty. This research took place in North Aceh District, Aceh Province from June to August 2012. Sampling method used was simple random sampling for 122 heads of farmer families. The analysis tools are tabulatin, multiple regression and PCA, correlation as well as Gini Ratio of income and land tenure. Rental of land is more dominant compared to other forms of institutional cooperation related to land. It reached 55% done by landless (gurem) farmers. Farming contributes 78.5% of total income, still dominant compare to other source of income. Each 1% of increasing of square of land tenure will lead to 8.453% farming income increasing. Each 1% change of LPL x dummy will increase 6.615% farming income. Farming income will increase up to 0.915% if length of school period rise 1%. Variable age negatively affect farm income with elasticity - 0.227%.Every 1% addition of family members will cause farming income increase about 0.655. The relation between Gini Ratio and the square of land tenure formed U shape according to correlation of square of land tenure and farmers’ income. Source of income other than farming can increase the total income. Bigger land that owned by farmers, the poverty become reduced. The strategic policies recomended are: 1) land access for landless farmers should be trigged seriously by land expansion, 2) rental mechanism should be simplified in order to rise income, 3) in North Aceh rural area, there should be activities other than farming to increase community welfare. Land institution in North Aceh District covers rental, mortgage/gala, and crop sharing/mawah. This kind of cooperation depend on farmers bergaining position in land institution. Rental refers to equal bargaining position. Mortgage found mostly as a form of weak land owners’ bargaining position because of pressure to gain cash in current time. Crops sharing can be seen as efforts of land owner to increase land utilization due to the abundance of labor. Simultantly, variables of square of land tenure, age, amunt of family members, school period length, own, own+rendstatus, and rend statussignificantly effect the farming income. Relation of income and square of land distribution forms U shape, where high Gini Ratio at narrow land, Gini Ratio lower in wider land, and Gini Ratio rise at larger land.
- MT - Economic and Management