Pilihan kebijakan pengelolan Taman Nasional Danau Sentarum Provinsi Kalimantan Barat
Management policy options of Danau Sentarum National Park West Kalimantan Province
Nurrochmat, Dodik Ridho
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Management of Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP) is conducted through DSNP Unit. Until now, the management has not achieved the expected objectives, namely the preservation of the area and welfare of the community. This condition indicates the single management by the government is not able to achieve the management objectives. This study aims to formulate the policy options of DSNP management through economic, social and policy approaches, in order to obtain better policy options economically (knowledge of economy as well as benefits generated), socially (reducing conflicts, culturally appropriate), and policy (governance; efficient/effective, less cost). These goals will be achieved through several studies, namely: 1) suspecting benefits and total economic potential of DSNP; 3) analyzing the stakeholders in the management of DSNP; 3) outlining the government’s social capital and capabilities in the management of DSNP; and 4) analyzing policy of DSNP management. The research had been conducted in the area of DSNP in the West Kalimantan Province. The data was collected using the techniques of: 1) Document research, 2) interview, 3) direct observation. The number of community samples quota is 60 (sixty) households in each location (3 SPTN) which was determined by random sampling. To comply with information obtained from the respondents, interviews were conducted with key informants in each study site. As for other stakeholders, the interviews were carried out with a snowball method. The data were analyzed quantitatively (categorization) and qualitatively. There were many kind of benefits in DSNP with high economic value. The TEV of DSNP covers Rp 139 billion per year. This result when compared with the cost of managing DSNP that covered Rp 6.7 billion in 2010 shows that only 4.82 percent of the benefits generated. It means that DSNP as conservation area that have been considered as a cost center is not true. This potential economic value of DSNP could be real by implementing incentive mechanism in the management of DSNP, where for the current time the incentive mechanism that is likely to run is water for environmental service for households. Various benefits and the high economic value contained in DSNP attract various stakeholders to utilize and manage them. There are 18 (eighteen) stakeholders involved in the management of DSNP, consisting of government, community, Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) and research institution. Based on their influence and importance, the stakeholders serve as subjects, key players, context setter and crowd; and the relation among them is conflicts, complementary and cooperation. The existence of these various stakeholders brings along the consequence that the management conducted in DSNP needs to be changed from a single management by the government to management involving the stakeholders. The form of stakeholders’ involvement can be seen from social capital at the community level and capability of the government in managing DSNP. Social capital in the community within the area of DSNP which is assessed from trust, norms and social networks shows the strong/high of social capital of the community. Public trust to the role of community leaders in managing natural resources is very high, which indicates that more people obey what is commanded by their leader. The norms governing the management of natural resources both written and unwritten are very concerned about sustainability, and since they have been done for generations that the infraction rarely happens; while social networks are formed to gain common welfare and more to the interest of economy. What already exists in the community shows that all orders are running a functional management and secure its sustainability. Meanwhile, the capability of the government measured from the intrinsic characteristic indicators and relation between state and community indicators shows the weak capability of the government in managing DSNP. It shows the fact that government is not able to manage DSNP, and it means there are problems in the policies implemented in the management of DSNP today. There are 31 (thirty-one) policies/regulations used by DNSP Unit as a foundation in DSNP management. The regulations are in the forms of relevant Statute, Government Regulation, Ministerial Regulation, Presidential Decree, Ministerial Decree, Regional Regulation, Decree and Regulation of Directorate General, and Decree of the Head of District. These regulations are mostly centralized, in the forms of command and control, and all the same for the whole conservation areas. The condition causes the ineffective of the management, therefore the management policies need to be changed specifically at location in the conservation areas. Devolution of the management of DSNP is necessary because it will further streamline the management of natural resources and will provide justice to the community as the stakeholder. Synchronizing the interests of community and government in the areas of DSNP is indeed an optimal solution in the activities of management. Collaboration in managing DSNP will minimize management cost borne by the government and in the same time will generate a sense of responsibility of the community in the management of DSNP.
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