Extraction of Nano Fraction from Volcanic Tuff of Mount Salak, West Java and Its Phosphate-adsorption Characterization
Purba, Sherlie Olivia
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Nanoscience and nanotechnology is currently growing very rapidly. In 2003, Abidin (2003 in Sugiarti et al.,2010) discovered the chemical structure of nanoball allophane and nanotube imogolith so that these two clay minerals, previously considered to be amorphous, are now known as crystalline with nano dimension (<5 nm). Therefore, these pH-dependent charged allophane and imogolith pose high specific surface area and adsorption capacity of anions such as P and cations such as NH4. However, research publication on the potential use of allophane and imogolith from volcanic soils of Indonesia as natural nanomaterial in non-agricultural application is difficult to find. This study was aimed at to: (1) explore, select and extract nano fraction from volcanic tuff materials of Central Java and West Java, (2) know the phosphate adsorption characteristic of the selected nano fraction, and (3) study its usage prospects in phospahte contaminated (waste) water treatment process. Based on geology maps, exploration and sampling of the volcanic tuff material was carried out in 15 points that spread from Tawangmangu, Central Java to Bogor, West Java, in February 2010. The nano fraction sample preparation, extraction and phosphate-adsorption characterization were carried out in the Lab. Soil Chemistry and Soil Fertility, Dep. Soil Science and Land Resource, IPB in March-July 2010. Based on dispersion test, nano fraction containing volcanic tuffs were selected and extracted with the following steps: dispersion in a 1 L-cylinder at pH-4 or pH-10 placed in an ultrasonic apparatus [15 min], sedimentation [20 hours], separation of the top 10 cm solution [containing nano and clay fractions], flocculation with NaCl, redispersion, separation of the nano fraction (which did not settled, <0.2 μm) from the clay fraction (which settled, <2 μm) by mean of centrifugation [3500 rpm, 15 min], flocculation and washing the excess NaCl using dialysis membrane, dilution with distilled water [250 cc] and gravi-metrically determination of the amount of the nano and clay fractions. The Langmuir isothermal P-adsorption characterization was done by adding solutions containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg P/L. The P concentration at equilibrium was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ 660 nm. From 1 g of volcanic tuff of M. Salak, Bogor, West Java, it could be extracted 0.71 mg positively charged nano fraction and 1.52 mg clay fraction only by applying the simple principle of dispersion at pH-4 and flocculation. The nano fraction was more effective than the clay one in adsorbing P with an average of 27-58% and 15-32%, respectively, of the initial P concentration with a range up to 15.63 mg P/L. The P adsorption effectiveness increased with the increasing ratio of fraction:solution or the weight of fraction used. The positively charged nano fraction extracted from volcanic tuff of M. Salak was found prospective to be used as a flocculant in P contaminated (waste) water treatment.