Kajian Etnobotani Masyarakat Kampung Adat Dukuh Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat
Zuhud, Ervizal A. M.
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The people of Dukuh Cultural Village Garut Regency, West Java are a group of community who live in traditional life pattern, respect the culture and tradition of their ancestor and stay in simply way. The usage of plants traditionally by local people is decrease keep pace with the modern development. This condition may occur to the people of Dukuh Cultural Village. Therefore the study concerning the ethnobotany of local people at Dukuh Cultural Village should be done. This study was conducted during June and September 2009 using literature study, interview and questioner, survey and field invent methods. This study was the early documentation of indigenous knowledge of Dukuh Cultural Village people. It is hopefully the result can be delivered and developed by young generation of Dukuh Cultural Village and people in general. The study invented 292 species of plants from 81 families of plants. The most family that invented was Fabaceae with 28 species. Those plants were categorized into 12 groups according to their usages. There are 101 species of food plant, 34 species of firewood, 47 species of buildingmaterial plant, 19 species of aromatic plant, 150 species of medicinal plant, 24 species of handicraft-material plant, 8 species of bio-pesticide, 33 species of cattle feeding, 16 species of ritual purpose-plant, 51 species of ornamental plant, 7 species of coloring-material plant and 3 species of drink-material plant. The result shows 194 species (66,44%) are cultivated plants, 74 species (25,34%) are wild plants, 24 species (8,22%) are categorized as the wild and cultivated plants. The location where the species of plants were invented consist of garden (148 species; 30,08%), yard (136 species; 27,64%), un-irrigated field (82 species; 16,67%), forest (71 species; 14,43%), edge of street (34 species; 6,91%) and rice field (21 species; 4,27%). The part of plants dominated used is leaf (110 species ; 22,45%) while fruit-skin (1 species ; 0,2%) is the lest. The total of habitus was dominated by herb (146 species; 50%). The bush is the minority (2 species; 0,68%). The main commodities are rice (Oriza sativa) as the main plant, clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and teak (Tectona grandis) as the main plant for increasing the local people’s economic. The food plant consists of vegetable, fruits and carbohydrate production-plants. The species of plants that are used for building and firewood are relatively same, only the parts of plants are different. Teak (Tectona grandis) and kihiyang (Albizia procera) are species that mostly used by the local people to build their houses. Aromatic plants has functions for additive and flavor substance of food, room camphor and clothes camphor. One of the important usages is for medical purpose. The practice of traditional medical that easy to see is medical treatment of pregnant, puerperal and post puerperal woman by an indigenous medical. The ornamental plants are taken from the forest, both inside of forest area and outside of area. The plants for ritual purpose are usually used in expressing of gratitude to God and religious event. The cattle feeding plants are used to feed goats and sheep. Bio-pesticide is for eradicating the plants’ pest. The handicraft material-plants are used for making plait, like for household furnishings and farming tools. The coloring material-plant is usually used in intention event and also to color the furniture. The usage of drink material-plant is not urgent due to enough water supplies in this village.The highest functional of plant is coconut (Cocos nucifera) with 9 categorized usage. The forest conservation practice of local people can be seen from the area distribution ; those are forbidden forest, covered forest, cultivation field, spare field and heritage field. Another conservation practice done by local people producing the seedling at plant. The people of this village are very close to customary law. The villagers’ lifestyle in Dukuh Cultural Village that is synergy to the nature should be maintained well in order to keep sustainable environmental and give benefit to social life.