Buffer Zone Community Empowerment Based on Indigenous Knowledge (Case Study in Senaru, Buffer zone of Gunung Rinjani National Park - West Nusa Tenggara).
Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Daerah Penyangga Berbasis Kearifan Lokal (Studi Kasus di Dusun Senaru, Daerah Penyangga Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani-Nusa Tenggara Barat)
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New paradigm of conservation requires the national park to conduct collaborative management. National park management must involve the communities surrounding, including communities in the buffer zone. Thus, the national park management objectives in addition to conserve this area should also include the community welfare purposes (economic, social, cultural). Senaru is one of the main entrance to the area of Mount Rinjani National Park. As a community, who have been living together for a long time, Senaru community have a unique social and cultural values which upheld by its members. These values will appear in the practices of community life regulate relationships between people including the interaction between man and environment, especially the area of Mount Rinjani. To achieve the collaborative management of national parks, then the socio-culture of the community needs to be studied and assess whether or not wise that traditional practices. This research was conducted to identify traditional practices that apply and formal rules (external) which applied on the community, to assess the wisdom and seek alternative solutions empowerment of communities around the national park which based on indigenous knowledge. Research conducted during April-May 2007. Research done by qualitative with in-depth interview methods, field observations and equipped with a literature study. The data then analyzed through a reduction stage, presentation and data inference. The results showed that traditional practices are particularly applicable wass distribution pattern of land into hutan tutupan desa and gawah, prohibitions cut without permission from melokaq, tereng kedengcor, memorial to nature, collecting forest products (wood, rattan, reeds, bamboo) only for the customary. The formal rules that apply were the community must maintain a traditional village form (Perda. No. 9 of 1989), certification of land (SK Kepala desa No. 208/02/Pem.I/2006),termination of new land clearing for plantations and fields (SK Kepala Desa No. 101/10/pem.I/2005), and culturally specific utilization zone (SK 99/IV/Set-3/2005). The forms of indigenous knowledge that recommended as the basis for community empowerment of Senaru were patterns of land distribution, the technique of collecting forest products and technique of community gardening and farming communities. Empowerment approach in accordance with the community indigenous knowledge were community income through improved farming techniques and gardening and community involvement in national park protection efforts.